Thursday, February 4, 2016

Anaphylactic shock: what is it?

Anaphylaxis - allergic reaction is instantaneous. By "instantaneous" refers to minutes and seconds in some cases that tested after direct exposure to the allergen. At the same time the blood circulation and breathing are violated to such an extent that without appropriate emergency measures people can say goodbye to life.

The condition for the occurrence of such an inadequate reaction of the immune system is the body prior to her contact with the allergen. In other words, anaphylactic shock caused by repeated hitting of the allergen into the body. We should not think that if you do not have any allergies that you are 100% insured against anaphylaxis. This is not true. Still, its probability disproportionately higher in those individuals who are allergic to a long-standing problem, for example, the same asthmatics.

In most cases, anaphylactic shock develops in response to repeated "acquaintance" with the following allergens:

  •     Various types of nuts (hazelnuts, almonds, cashews, walnuts, peanuts, etc.);
  •     poison from the bite of bees, wasps, flies;
  •     foodstuffs (citrus, "milk", fish, bananas, etc.);
  •     drugs (almost every drug, if you look in his instructions for use, is able to cause an allergic reaction);
  •     household chemicals (detergents, hair dye, etc.).

Symptoms of anaphylactic shock

Anaphylactic shock - a life-threatening condition, so the ability to quickly separate the wheat from the chaff, and anaphylactic shock from any functional ailments can be very costly. If anaphylaxis in the body marked a massive release of histamine mediator of inflammation. It negatively affects the bloodstream, causing the patient's skin turns pale and grows cold. Signs of anaphylaxis include:

  •     when a sharp change in the human condition is clearly correlated in time with exposure to potential allergens (bee sting, injection or ingestion of a drug, a non-traditional eaten food and so on.);
  •     choking, bluish color of the skin and lips;
  •     inhibition of the nervous system, loss of consciousness;
  •     rashes on the skin in varying amounts and types;
  •     swelling of the tongue and lips, hindering breathing process.

Anaphylaxis each person can have their own specifics. At one first thing in the affected skin (itching, rash, swelling, redness), others anaphylaxis immediately "has a brain", causing severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, muscle spasms, urinary incontinence, loss of consciousness. In some cases, anaphylactic shock is myocardial infarction.

Anaphylactic Shock: First aid

Here the two do not have to be considered: should immediately call the medics. At stake the risk of cardiac arrest or cessation of breathing, the other option can not be.

First aid for anaphylactic shock

If a person is already unconscious, not breathing you should independently try to resuscitate him. Immediate start for the chest compressions, clasping his fingers rhythmically (100-120 times per minute), pressing palms on the breast in such a way that they went deep into 5-6 cm. Massage should be combined with artificial respiration according to the "mouth-to -rot "approximately every 30-40 compressions. Do not forget to close with the victim's nose.

If the patient is conscious and breathing, it should be planted or placed in a reclining position. If he is very weak, it is required to lay on a flat surface with no protrusions, slightly lifting the legs (pillow).

If possible, we should try to remove the body of a potential allergen (stomach wash, induce vomiting, take out the sting of bees, etc.).

Hay fever in children: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Causes of hay fever in children
Hay fever in children manifestation of hay fever in a child
What determines a child's exposure to pollinosis? If a family has at least one such a "sufferer", there is a high likelihood that the disease will manifest itself and its children. Although hay fever is not a hereditary disease, research shows that children's susceptibility to pollen has its roots in their pedigree. Pollinosis - quite common in asthmatics. Eczema, passive smoking and air pollution - all of these factors can trigger hay fever.

Symptoms of hay fever in children

Hay fever in children is diagnosed primarily on two main grounds: wanton, at first glance, sneezing and profuse nasal discharge lasting for the entire period of the mass distribution of pollen in the environment. Eyes may redden, tears and unbearably itchy. There may be a photophobia and paroxysmal cough. Due to the allergic swelling of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, breathing becomes difficult, and in the beginning of the problems arise with nasal breathing, and then there is a sensation of a lump in the throat. In some cases, hay fever causes skin rashes. All these physiological problems are reflected in the general condition of the child: it is capricious, becomes restless or, on the contrary, lethargic and lack of initiative. He lost appetite, headaches, can increase the body temperature (not always). Because of complications, which are peculiar to pollen allergy, it may be mentioned bacterial infections and their consequences - sinusitis, conjunctivitis, etc.

By and large, hay fever can occur in adults, but still this nagging ailment is more peculiar to children.

Generally, hay fever develops under the influence of grass pollen, but it does not mean that the tree pollen does not fall under suspicion. For example, pollen of birch or hazel very contagious in terms of hay fever. Duration of symptoms is determined by the source of allergies, ie view caused its pollen. So, the symptoms induced by grass pollen, can plague from May to July, while the tree pollen causes sneezing and sniffing, since early spring.

Treating hay fever in children

Any treatment of the disease, aimed at suppressing its symptoms and do not address the causes, threatens to turn into a waste of time. In this regard, an important condition for the successful treatment of hay fever in children, for that matter, any other allergy, is the conclusion of a child under the "fire" of the allergen, or at least the maximum limiting contact with the allergen.

How can I hide from ubiquitous pollen? The problem solved by the time, in the flowering period Allergenic plants, changing the child's place of residence (of course, if possible).

With specific regard to the treatment of hay fever, it is desirable to participate in the process of not only the local pediatrician, and allergist. The basis of the pharmacological treatment of hay fever in children - antihistamine therapy. The mechanism of action of drugs of this group is based on the inactivation of histamine - a mediator of inflammation and allergic reactions. Antihistamines can easily cope with the itching, sneezing and watery eyes, but they are often powerless when nasal congestion. These formulations are produced in a tablet or in the form of nasal sprays and have two "playing field":

  •     as emergency aid in the event of symptoms of hay fever;
  •     as a prophylactic in cases where it is known beforehand that the child will be in the "public" allergens.

The main pharmacologically active ingredients are antihistamines cetirizine, fexofenadine and loratadine. Compared to the earlier generation drugs (remember, though, that as diphenhydramine), they practically do not cause drowsiness.

Still other drugs are effective in pollinozah - corticosteroids as nasal sprays and drops. These drugs are used only in severe cases, in view of their serious impact on the child's body. Corticosteroids have a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect, so they are able to suppress the effects of allergic reactions. For corticosteroids resort in cases where anti-histamines did not give the desired effect or when the main symptom of hay fever is a stuffy nose.

Another good option symptomatic treatment of allergic nasal congestion - Nasal decongestants in the form of sprays or drops. They narrow the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa and facilitate breathing. Often antihistamines and decongestants are combined in one product to provide maximum all-round effect.

During acute hay fever a child should be transferred to a sparing diet, necessarily excluding berries and fruits Allergenic plants. For example, if the cause of the allergy is hazel, it is necessary to remove from the diet of nuts.

Hay fever, in spite of its apparent safety ( "you just have to wait a little bit") is fraught with rather grave consequences. Therefore, parents should be very careful about any allergic reactions from your child and not postponing it indefinitely, to pay a visit to the allergist