Friday, July 17, 2015

Obstructive sleep apnea

Snoring is the primary symptom of obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea - a serious disease that is characterized by the development of pauses in breathing during sleep. During the night it can be observed up to 400 stops breathing (3 - 4 hours). Such breathing stops contribute to the development of cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden death during sleep. Development of the disease contribute to: polyps in the nose, congenital abnormalities of the nasal passages, enlarged tonsils, sleep deficit, obesity, intake of alcoholic beverages, smoking, and aging.

Obstructive sleep apnea is shown snoring and periodic bouts of sleep apnea, the duration of which more than 10 seconds. Because of the night snoring day marked drowsiness, headache, irritability.

Treatment: If the cause of obstructive sleep apnea are pathological changes, such as a deviated septum, treatment - surgery. When snoring may appoint medication.


Red swollen nose, severe discomfort and, of course, snot - this picture is painfully familiar to everyone. Runny spares neither adults nor children, and he often makes itself felt at least once a year. It is so common, that it is all to become accustomed and do not consider something out of the ordinary. Meanwhile, rhinitis may be different and treat it dismissively not worth it. Such carelessness is fraught with complications of the common cold or the transition to the chronic form, when it is much more difficult to cure.

What happens in the nose rhinitis

As with any medical term ending in "IT" Rhinitis means inflammation. In this case, inflamed nasal mucosa. To understand what happens, you need to have an idea of ​​how to work the body. So, the primary function of the nose - to handle incoming outside air before it enters the lungs. In fact, it is a natural conditioner that:

  •     cleans
  •     moisturizes,
  •     warms, cools the air to the desired temperature.

For its adjustment responsible blood vessels that are part of the nasal mucosa. If the air is cold, they expand, and if hot - narrowed. As a result, the temperature of air entering the lungs is always from 28 to 30 ° C.

When the nose fall viruses or bacteria, allergens, any other irritant substances, the work of the blood vessels is broken. They overflow with blood, mucous membrane swells. As a result, the person becomes hard to breathe through the nose. Soon the stagnant blood in the vessels begins to "sweat". In other words, the liquid part of it seeps through the walls of vessels and irritate the inner membrane of the nose, causing the hard to produce mucus. All of this flows out in the form of the notorious snot.

Varieties rhinitis

    If the cause of the inflammation becomes a virus, a bacterium or a fungus, so called infectious rhinitis. It is the most common option. The most common infectious rhinitis affects children's noses: snot many kids there several times a year. But adults do not shy away from a runny nose, especially in winter.
    Non-infectious rhinitis can be caused by a variety of factors. For example, it becomes the cause of various allergens, chemicals, too cold, or vice versa, hot air, injury to the nose, some systemic diseases. Of special note is vasomotor rhinitis in which the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa may not work properly due to neuro disorder.

How does inflammation

Due to the prevalence of the phenomenon of rhinitis, the symptoms are known to all. If the inflammation is acute form, it is developed as follows:

  •     a person begins to "tickle" in the nose, a feeling of dryness, an uncontrollable desire to sneeze. Often, tears streaming from his eyes, slightly raised temperature, headache. All this testifies to the beginning of the inflammatory process. This step generally lasts only a few hours.
  •     Soon the nasal mucosa swells, which is why it becomes difficult to breathe. Usually this state is described by the words "stuffy nose". The sense of smell deteriorates markedly, changing taste perception familiar dishes. His nose starts flowing stream clear watery liquid. Because under her nose and upper lip appears irritation: skin turns red, painful cracks formed. The voice becomes nasal, continued tearing.
  •     A few days later nasal thicken and become yellow or green. This is due to the fact that added to the mucus pus. The human condition improved slightly, but the nose is still enshrined. Headache retreats, and the number of precipitates decreases markedly. At this stage, people are not bothered itchy nose and tears from her eyes. Gradually normal nasal breathing and a runny nose completely passes. Typically, this occurs at the eighth to fourteenth day after the initiation of disease.

When vasomotor rhinitis picture is somewhat different. The sense of smell is usually not affected, but sneezing is paroxysmal in nature. Watery snot, a lot of them, thus laying alternately one or the other nostril. These symptoms usually appear in the morning after sleeping on the background of high blood pressure or the sudden drop in air temperature.

Allergic rhinitis also has its own characteristics. It is characterized by severe itching in the nose, debilitating bouts of sneezing and nasal discharge is not streams and river flowing "water".


It all depends on the cause of rhinitis. If it is caused by an infection, prescribe antiviral or antibacterial drugs, and drugs that eliminate the symptoms of the common cold - swelling, congestion and so on. D. When allergic rhinitis best option - to establish allergen and avoid contact with him patient. If this is not possible, also assigned medication. A vasomotor rhinitis sometimes treated surgically.


Most people faced with this most unpleasant phenomenon, while at the tender age. That children's ears are most prone to otitis media, though by this scourge is not insured or one adult. The result is almost always the same: a strong "shooting" pain, nagging and poison life. A man willing to do anything to get rid of it. But here it is important not to engage in independent action as soon as possible to see a doctor.

Most people faced with this most unpleasant phenomenon, while at the tender age. That children's ears are most prone to otitis media, though by this scourge is not insured or one adult. The result is almost always the same: a strong "shooting" pain, nagging and poison life. A man willing to do anything to get rid of it. But here it is important not to engage in independent action as soon as possible to see a doctor. He adequately assess the situation and prescribe treatment, whereby the ears very soon come back to normal. If you tighten a visit to a specialist or to overdo it with folk remedies, you can lose your hearing - partially or fully.


Otitis is a condition in which one of the departments inflamed ear. To understand the process, you need to become better acquainted with these departments and their functions.

    Speaking of "ear", we usually mean the ear. However, this is only one of its departments - outside. The auricle plays the role of the receiving antenna that catches the sound. In addition to her outer office consists of the ear canal and eardrum.
    Immediately after the membrane is a tiny cavity, where the sounds are processed and amplified. This is the middle part of the ear. It includes so-called sound bone, specially interconnected. They perform the function of transmitting sound.
    The inner ear is a department of the channel system, twisted in the form of a snail. Here, the sound is converted into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. Snail - this is the organ of hearing.

Inflamed can any of these departments. Accordingly, there is an external otitis, middle and inner. The first - the most harmless, the second - the most common, and the third - the most dangerous. The following will be discussed is about otitis media, which is diagnosed in most cases.

As the inflammation

It all starts with the eustachian tube, which is responsible for maintaining the "right" pressure in the middle ear department. As a result of acute respiratory infections or other causes this tube swells and does not cope with the task. As a result, in the middle ear is formed and accumulates inflammatory fluid, which are beginning to breed bacteria or viruses. This process is called otitis media. This inflammation is almost always a complication of infectious diseases nasopharynx.

Symptoms of otitis

  • Otitis media rarely goes unnoticed. Usually, it has both general and local manifestations, the main ones are:
  •     ear pain - it can be aching, throbbing, "shooting". These sensations arise due to the fact that accumulated liquid pressure on the eardrum;
  •     hearing loss. Usually it is only temporary, the ability to hear normal maximum returns in a few weeks;
  •     congestion, tinnitus. Feelings about the same as a person experiences during takeoff or landing;
  •     fever. Usually it is low, but the mercury can show and 39 ° C, if acute otitis media, or inflammation develops simultaneously with the flu;
  •     discharge from the ear. Accumulated pus may break the eardrum and get out. Usually after that ear pain subsides or passes at all. The membrane then grows and hearing problems do not arise. But if no pus comes out, it can get inside the skull and cause brain abscess or meningitis;
  •     malaise. When otitis person feels weak, can not sleep, he loses appetite.

If the inflammation affects the external part of the ear, this is manifested by redness, swelling, ulcers, or the appearance of acne. Internal otitis makes itself felt dizziness, imbalance, nausea and vomiting. The last two symptoms can occur in young children and in inflammation of the middle ear.

Specificity of "child" otitis

Toddlers ears hurt much more often than adults. This is due to the peculiarities of children's anatomy. In children the Eustachian tube is a narrow and short, so for her the infection reaches the middle ear faster. In addition, kids often get cold, respectively, increases the risk of otitis media. The problem is that young children, and especially infants, adults can not explain what they are concerned about. As a result, parents have to guess about the pain in the ears of circumstantial evidence:
  •     gratuitous, seemingly crying spells;
  •     anxiety and irritability;
  •     sleep problems;
  •     appetite loss.

Check suspicion of otitis is quite simple. It is enough to gently push the tragus - is a projection-hryaschik, which is at the base of the ear. If the child responds to the sharp cry, probably, he otitis.


In the case of otitis inflammation usually removed using medicines. As a general rule, prescribe antibiotics drops (in the nose - a vasoconstrictor, in the ear - anti-inflammatory, relieves pain), antiseptic solution for washing. In some cases it is necessary to pierce the eardrum to get rid of pus. Proper treatment can only assign an otolaryngologist, so with otitis visit to a specialist is required.


Sinusitis - a disease of the paranasal sinuses.

Distinguish: catarrhal and purulent sinusitis, the flow - acute and chronic. Typically, sinusitis occurs as a complication of SARS and influenza, the common cold undertreated.

The disease starts with the swelling of the sinuses, resulting in impaired ventilation. In sinus gradually accumulated mucus that with the progression of the disease turns into pus. It is noted: nasal congestion, persistent headache, fever.

In addition, impaired sense of smell and dream, patients complain of fatigue and general weakness.


Prescribers relieving mucosal edema.

When purulent inflammation shows the use of antibiotics, restorative, anti-allergic and detoxification agent. In chronic sinusitis treated surgically - maxillary sinusotomy.

Sore throat

There are few people who have never in my life did not suffer from angina. Meanwhile, very few people have the right idea about what this disease is and what it is dangerous. Some genuinely believe that the angina can get sick, just get your feet wet or inhaling cold air.

Certainly, hypothermia contributes to development of the disease. However, the root cause is always the infection. And not some, but very specific. Usually this streptococcus, in some cases - Staphylococcus. So, a sore throat is a contagious disease. Sent it:

  •     the air;
  •     food;
  •     contact-household path.

Sore throat begins suddenly and lasts a short time. Theoretically recovery may occur by itself, without any drugs, but in practice almost always takes place medical intervention. Leave this disease without attention, or self-medicate - too great a risk. Firstly, a sore throat may be a symptom of other, more dangerous disease. Secondly, angina often causes complications and causes of rheumatism, renal or heart failure.


When the entire body suffers from angina, but the brunt assume tonsils. This bean-shaped formations, which are located on either side of the throat just behind the language. They are called glands, and the Latin name sounds like «tonsillae». Accordingly, the inflammation of the tonsils termed "tonsillitis". Many people use the term as a synonym for a sore throat, but these are different things. Tonsillitis is the only one of its symptoms. That is in itself an inflammation of the tonsils - is not angina. These concepts should be distinguished.


Angina is not one of those diseases which goes unnoticed. It starts rapidly and is developing very rapidly, while delivering a person a lot of inconvenience and discomfort. In particular, for angina is characterized by such symptoms:

  •     severe sore throat, whose intensity increases with swallowing;
  •     a sharp increase in temperature;
  •     an increase in the size of the tonsils, the formation of plaque on their yellowish-white;
  •     intoxication with all its consequences - headache, loss of appetite, weakness, chills, body aches, sweating;
  •     swollen lymph nodes located under the ears and under the jaw. When pressed on lymph nodes there are painful sensations;
  •     children may have vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the ears.

The disease is not always flows the same way. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the severity of the disease usually distinguished forms of angina:

  •     Bluetongue;
  •     follicular;
  •     lacunar.

The easiest form of a catarrhal. From the other two, it differs in that the plaque on the tonsils little or no (glands just red), temperature exceeds 37,5 ° C, and the lymph nodes are enlarged slightly. For follicular angina characterized by pustules the size of a pin head, and for lacunar - yellowish-white coating that can be easily removed. The latter form is the most severe.

Difficulties diagnosing

On the one hand, to recognize angina is easy: it takes just open his mouth wide and look at the tonsils. On the other hand, inflamed tonsils and coated coating may be symptoms of many other diseases. For example, diphtheria, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, gonorrhea, syphilis.

Each of these diseases are treated differently, so it is important to put the correct diagnosis. Make it can only be a specialist who does not will confuse a red throat. And if in doubt, to dot the «i» will help laboratory studies.


The most loyal and reliable way to overcome a sore throat - to take antibiotics. That and their doctors prescribe. The main thing is that the patient has not stopped to drink tablets as soon as it becomes easier. Otherwise, the high risk of complications.

Gargling and neglect is not: it can significantly reduce the pain. And of course, we must not forget about fluids and bed rest.


Adenoids - a pathological increase in nasopharyngeal tonsils. The disease is common among children aged 1 year to 15 years. Its development is often repeated microbial and viral upper respiratory tract infection, susceptibility to allergies, childhood infectious diseases, immune deficiencies, hereditary.

The disease usually has a long duration. The first manifestations are - shortness of nasal breathing and serous nasal discharge. Shortness of breath leads to sleep disturbance, as children snore during sleep and sleep with your mouth open. Sleep disturbance leads to lethargy, fatigue, there is a weakening of memory, apathy, decreased performance at school, change of voice. In addition, when adenoids are marked persistent headaches. In some cases, most often neglected - in the child's mouth is always open, the nasolabial folds are smoothed. Against the background of the adenoids may occur laryngospasm, often a cough, especially at night, shortness of breath.

Treatment of adenoids surgery.