Sunday, July 19, 2015

Damage to the meniscus

Damage to the menisci ranks first among the internal injuries of the knee. Men meniscus damage are more common than in women. There are several types of meniscal lesions: excessive mobility of the meniscus, a torn meniscus, chronic trauma, cystic degeneration of the meniscus, meniscal degeneration.

Typically, when the meniscus is damaged are marked on the inside of pain, joint effusion. Patients complain of a premonition blocking the joint, its instability, especially when descending the stairs.

When you break the meniscus clicking noted during flexion of the joint and pain


Scoliosis - a serious disease of the musculoskeletal system, in which there is a lateral curvature of the spine and spinal torsional rotation around its axis. Sometimes congenital and acquired scoliosis, but more often - congenital. For scoliosis can cause some disease processes (syphilis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis) and vertebral fracture.

The disease begins with weakness of the muscles of the back, shoulder blades and serving poor posture. As the disease progresses there is a change of the vertebrae and ligaments, resulting in a distortion.


Treatment of scoliosis conservative and operative. Recommended: physiotherapy, massage, swimming, B vitamins

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia - a type of abdominal wall hernias. It is the most common form. A defect occurs in the groin area, which causes outward protrusion of the internal organs, forming an oval formation. Most often it occurs in men as they have in the area of ​​the groin spermatic cord passes. It affects middle-aged people - mostly older than 40 years. Inguinal hernia is of two kinds:
  •  Acquisition;
  • congenital.

Symptoms of inguinal hernia

Among the basic symptoms of the disease is marked protrusion of oval or round shape in the groin area. It decreases with increased relaxation and stress at the time. It may be localized to the left or right of the symphysis pubis, located above the inguinal crease. The amount of such protrusions varies from a walnut to a very large bulge.

In addition, there are nagging pains that are aggravated by fiznagruzki, and strain during coughing. There is heaviness in the abdomen, difficulty urinating and a violation of the chair.

When a genetic predisposition (congenital hernia) disease is triggered by the low strength of the connective tissue. Why muscle-tendon channel is not able to withstand the pressure inside the peritoneum, forming a hernial sac.

When acquired form of hernia current impetus for its occurrence is very long, or the DC voltage of the abdominal wall. This is due, for example, with chronic and severe cough, difficulty urinating, regular constipation, excessive toil.

However, regardless of type, inguinal hernia occurs equally. After lengthy fiznagruzok and overvoltage at the bottom of the abdomen (right or left), first pulling sensation arises. Then there is a kind of swelling - the protrusion of the internal organs. So shaped oval or rounded education - hernial sac. It can be worn and uneven contours (in the case of strong protrusion).

Due to the growth in intra-abdominal pressure of adipose tissue, bowel loops and nearby organs tense and put pressure on the abdominal wall. This causes discomfort and pain. Inguinal canal widening. The internal organs are located partly outside the abdominal cavity. Further compression may occur - the so-called hernia incarceration. It is accompanied by constipation, vomiting, nausea, severe pain.


Inguinal hernia treated surgically in one of two ways:

  •     tensioning method;
  •     no tensioning procedure.

The first method applies tension hernia repair. It is literally a cut tissue of the abdomen and groin narrowing the gap in several joints. So the muscle-tendon structure is fixed in the new position. The operation is performed only under anesthesia (of any type).

The second relates to the method, and laparoscopic hernia repair endoproteznaya. Operation with the introduction of the endoprosthesis is to impose a polypropylene mesh to strengthen the abdominal wall. This surgery is performed even under local anesthesia. At times it reduces the risk of complications and repeat the disease. Distinguished by a rapid recovery.

Laparoscopic method of operating does not involve large skin incisions. All manipulations are performed through a tube and cannula. The operation is performed under spinal or general anesthesia.


When the man rose to his feet and knees for two, it became one of his main achievements and challenges at the same time. Walking upright increases the load on the spine as a result of its "parts" wear out, degraded. This process experts called osteochondrosis.

Today, the disease has become a truly mass character: in one way or another extent it affects up to 90% of the people inhabiting the Earth. Such prevalence of low back pain is obliged to sedentary lifestyles and poor diet, which are hallmarks of the modern world. However, those involved in sports, this disease is also not shy away from: excessive exercise are not less harmful to the spine.

However, there is no clear answer as to why developing low back pain. Experts agree that the cause of the disease is becoming a whole range of factors. This heredity and metabolic disorders and obesity, and infections, and many other things. So from back problems no one is immune.


When osteochondrosis is a gradual destruction of the intervertebral discs and all that is in close proximity to them - articular cartilage, ligaments, bone vertebrae. As is known, one of the functions is to maintain the ridge body upright. A intervertebral discs act as shock absorbing pads that are filled with a gelatinous liquid. Thanks to this "cushion" the spine is flexible and easy to accept this or that position.

Due to the excessive workload and shortfall of nutrients in the shell of an intervertebral disc appear microscopic cracks. Subsequently, they are overgrown with scar tissue, but it does not save the situation. Intervertebral disc gradually loses fluid, and with it - shock absorbing properties. As a result, the load is increased, and the disc further collapses. As a result, the vertebrae shift become too mobile, and ligaments and muscles sag. There is a denial of the vessels and nerve fibers.

Trying to fix the situation, the body launches on the affected area the formation of bone spurs that "fetters" dislocation of vertebrae in a kind of shell. These growths are often formed in the wrong place, creating additional problems.

On the basis of what is spine amazed distinguish low back pain:

  •     Neck;
  •     breast;
  •     lumbosacral.

In some cases, it struck several departments - is the most severe form of the disease.

How does osteochondrosis

For a long time the disease may not even be felt. In general, it is characterized by a rich symptoms. The catch is that the manifestations of osteochondrosis can be misleading, because many of them, apparently, are not connected with the spine. For example, he felt pain in his heart, a man goes to the appointment with the cardiologist, and in violation of the genitals - a gynecologist, urologist. Meanwhile, the cause of these problems may be just the destruction of the intervertebral discs. After all ridge contacts with a number of internal organs and has an impact on their work.

In most cases, osteochondrosis observed:

  •     back pain - they may be weak, aching, and very intense;
  •     numbness, coldness of hands or feet;
  •     mobility limitation (can not be fully straighten his back, turn his head);
  •     fatigue, rapid onset of fatigue;
  •     violation of posture - movable vertebrae "migrate" to the new location, curving ridge;
  •     muscle spasms.

All these are common symptoms, but there are specific, which manifest themselves in the defeat of certain spine. Thus, signs of cervical degenerative disc disease are:

  •     headache. First of them is suffering neck, and later whiskey;
  •     pain in the area of ​​the shoulders and arms, numbness;
  •     blurred vision, eye fatigue;
  •     development of vertebral artery syndrome, in which there is noise in the ears, dizziness, "flies" before his eyes, and his head "explode" from the throbbing pain;
  •     sudden fainting - it happens mostly with the elderly.

If the disease gripped the thoracic spine, the person usually complains:

  •     pain, a sense of "stake" in the chest;
  •     discomfort in the blade between the ribs;
  •     Pressing pain in the heart;
  •     the formation of "lump" in his throat;
  •     arrhythmia, high blood pressure;
  •     pain in the abdomen.

With lumbosacral osteochondrosis disturbed patient:

  •     pain, often even "backache" in the area of ​​the lumbar, sacral;
  •     numbness in the legs, their coldness;
  •     failures in the genitals. The men - erectile dysfunction, difficulty with urination, women - trouble conceiving.


To restore the intervertebral disc can not be destroyed, it is an irreversible process. But you can stop the progression of the disease, eliminate unpleasant symptoms. For this purpose, the drug and hardware treatment, massage, special exercises recommended. If the portion of the spine severely impaired, it is necessary to resort to surgery.

Hip Dysplasia

Today, increasingly heard about hip dysplasia in children. Indeed, this disease is very common.

Hip Dysplasia is a flaw - incorrect relative positions of elements of the hip (femoral head, acetabulum, ligaments, muscles). This disease occurs as a result of disruption of the normal development of the hip joint during intrauterine life of the fetus. The main reason is heredity, as well as - diseases of mother during pregnancy, breech presentation, endocrine pathology, deficiency of trace elements and vitamins that promote the correct formation of cartilage and connective tissue.

There are three degrees of dysplasia:

  • predvyvih
  • subluxation
  • dislocation

The diagnosis of "hip dysplasia" is placed on the basis of clinical symptoms, the results of X-ray and ultrasound. This is the most informative diagnostic methods.

The earlier joint dysplasia is detected, the more successful the treatment will be.

Against the background of functional disorders untreated dysplasia of the hip joints can cause disability in early childhood or in adulthood. Against the background of dysplasia at the age of 25 - 55 years may develop dysplastic coxarthrosis - pain, discomfort, discomfort and limited mobility of the joints.


Treatment of dysplasia in children should be supervised podiatrist. Mild dysplasia can be quite broad swaddling. In more severe cases require the use of special tools - tire-spacers. Pori adequate treatment of the newborn child function of the hip joint are reduced by 3 - 4 months of life.

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease is a defeat tibial epiphysis head necrosis. Accompanied by the destruction of bone nucleus under the influence of local overloads, local circulatory disorders and permanent injury. Most often it occurs on one leg, very rarely - in two.

It is dystrophy. It occurs mostly in males. The illness affects adolescents aged 10 to 15 years. However, the way to express and youths up to 18 years. It has a few names:

  •     Osgood-Shlyattera;
  •     osteochondropathy tibial tuberosity.

The symptoms of Osgood-Schlatter disease

Among the main symptoms of the disease are observed: the lower zone of knee pain and swelling. The pain is permanent and is enhanced in the following cases:

  •     pressing;
  •     squats;
  •     folding;
  •     walk;
  •     fiznagruzki.

It does not take even at rest. When relying on the knee area sometimes radiates along the tendons. Also noted soft tissue swelling. Movement of the knee free, but accompanied by pain.

The disease does not occur in a vacuum, as it was assumed earlier. It provokes a number of factors - both external and internal. So, it appears after injuries, bruises, sports, especially where there are elements of active load on your knees. Mostly it susceptible adolescents and youths involved in sports such as athletics (heavy and light), the struggle of all kinds, football, hockey, acrobatics, skiing, volleyball, tennis, basketball.

Pathological process samootgranichivayuschiysya. It provokes a heavy load on the tendon 4 head thigh muscles, which is connected to the tibial tubercle. The pain is localized in the lower area of ​​the knee. Moving covers it completely. Flexion and extension of the joint uncomplicated, but extremely painful. Amplified by repeated loads.

The disease long enough. It ends with the growth of the organism. Prognosis is favorable. However, from time to time after exercise and sports may be manifested recurrent pain in the patellar tendon attachment point. Also in the final is probably the formation gnarled growths below the knee, and the occurrence of rheumatic response to weather changes.


Treatment of the disease therapeutic. It consists mainly of physiotherapy:

  •     electrophoresis procaine and calcium (alternately), aminophylline, cocarboxylase, lidocaine (for eliminating inflammatory processes);
  •     mud baths;
  •     paraffin applications;
  •     shock wave therapy;
  •     Use ozokerite;
  •     local UV irradiation;
  •     massage and so on.

But most importantly - providing rest the affected limb. To do this, use the forced immobilization using plaster cuff. But that, in extreme cases, usually fairly simple limit loads on foot. It plays an important role and a spa treatment. Surgery is rarely used. It consists in fixing a bone graft to the tuberosity of the tibia.