Friday, July 10, 2015

Allergic conjunctivitis

Any illness creates some inconvenience for people. But of particular discomfort felt when suffering one of the most vulnerable and sensitive organs - eyes. This problem is familiar to so many: conjunctivitis occurs in children and the elderly, men and women. That is, all who have eyes. However, the most susceptible to the disease, those who:

  •     It has a weakened immune system;
  •     wear soft contact lenses;
  •     It takes corticosteroids;
  •     It has chronic nasal lesions, lacrimal;
  •     prone to allergies.

Of all the diseases of the eye it is the most common is conjunctivitis. It is easily treatable, but in the absence of proper attention may become chronic or even damage eyesight (such as nearsightedness).

Features of the disease

The eyeball and the inside of the eyelid covers the transparent, almost invisible film. Its thickness is not greater than one millimeter. This film, which is responsible for dry eye, and there conjunctiva. When it becomes inflamed, it begins conjunctivitis. The reasons for which an illness is pretty much the main ones are:

  •     viruses;
  •     bacteria;
  •     allergens;
  •     other irritants (e.g., evaporation, chemical substances).

And viral and bacterial conjunctivitis is contagious. The only difference is that in the former case, the infection spreads through airborne droplets, and the second - in contact with the affected areas. So first, as a rule, one eye becomes inflamed and then the other. Although under certain conditions the second eye infection can be avoided.

Acute conjunctivitis is developing rapidly and has a bright symptoms and chronic, on the contrary, it proceeds rather slowly and not so clearly evident.

This disease can be in two forms: acute and chronic. The person experiences severe itching, pain, swelling of the eyelids (upper and lower), and sometimes stinging. With the transition of allergic conjunctivitis in the chronic stage are stored only irritation of eyes and itching. The rest flows smoothed, but almost constantly. Disease manifests only on contact with the allergen.

    Drug conjunctivitis develops within 6 hours after taking the medications. During this time, there are growing rapidly swelling, excessive tearing, itching, burning sensation in the eyes and the inability to open it. After prolonged administration of the drug appears follicular form of allergic conjunctivitis. It reminds spring catarrh. In this case, the disease progresses slowly - about 4 months. After the abolition of the drug all the symptoms gradually disappear.
    Atopic conjunctivitis is a seasonal exacerbation. Often accompanied by allergic rhinitis and hay fever seen with. The manifestation of the disease is characterized by burning eyes, itching, severe pain, photophobia, and lacrimation. Also in the course of having swelling, redness and excessive mucus. For this form of allergic conjunctivitis is very dangerous secondary infection. From this age appear defeated, scarring, and hypertrophy of the papillae.
    Spring catarrh common in the southern regions. He mainly affects adolescents, children and men. Has a clear affection for the season: it begins in the spring and the autumn subsides. One of the first manifestations - itching. He gradually intensified, becoming unbearable, especially in the evening. Then, swollen eyelids, conjunctiva reddens. On the conjunctiva appears tuberosity - papillary proliferation of dense individual character. Sometimes the disease becomes severe, affecting the cornea and limb. The disease has a long duration.

Among the consequences of allergic conjunctivitis:

  •     loss of visual acuity;
  •     bronchial asthma;
  •     the accession of secondary infection;
  •     purulent conjunctivitis;
  •     blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids);
  •     keratitis (inflammation of the cornea);
  •     iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris eyes);
  •     angioedema;
  •     anaphylactic shock.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. For this study the clinical history and characteristics of symptoms. If you want to perform a differential diagnosis with other types of the disease:

  •     fungal conjunctivitis;
  •     viral conjunctivitis;
  •     bacterial conjunctivitis.

The most informative method is to bacteriological studies and bacterioscopic detachable eye and mucous membrane swabs. It is also practiced by cytological analysis of scrapings. To understand the cause of the allergic reaction is assigned a procedure to establish the cause of allergies. For this purpose, the skin tests and examinations of blood serum for the presence of antibody IgE.


Despite the presence of specific symptoms, in many cases, even the doctor can not determine the cause of the disease, namely, it depends on it, what will be the treatment. Just identify the pathogen can only be in the lab. But often such studies is not necessary, most conjunctivitis tested by themselves.

When bacterial infection effective drops or an antibiotic ointment, but are sometimes used pills and even injections. To clear the secretions from the eyelids, you should use cloth that has been soaked in boiled water. It is important to observe hygiene and produce all manipulations with eyes (to dig, wiping) only with clean hands.

Nasal allergy

Allergic rhinitis is a nasal inflammatory response to allergen. He also is known as hay fever. It is characterized by episodic or chronic disturbances of nasal breathing. It can be of two types:

1. persistent (year-round);

2. intermittent (seasonal).

What are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis

After contact with the allergen reaction occurs almost immediately or can be delayed for a few hours - from 4 to 8 disappears after 7-10 days. Among the symptoms that manifest themselves in a few minutes, are:

  •     intense sneezing (in chronic allergies is usually observed in the morning, after waking up);
  •     rhinorrhea (runny nose are generally transparent and has a liquid consistency, but may be a yellowish viscous and the presence of nasal or sinus infection);
  •     tickling in the throat (as a result of a drip infusion, often accompanied by a cough);
  •     itchy eyes and watery eyes (a sign combining with allergic conjunctivitis);
  •     itching and tickling in the nose and ear.

By delayed symptoms occurring after a period after exposure to the allergen, are:

  •     nasal sinuses, and wheezing;
  •     allergic crease in the area of ​​the nose (from the constant rubbing and sniff provoked rhinitis);
  •     allergic bruising under the eyes (dark circles);
  •     pain and discomfort in the face;
  •     hearing problems or the pressure in the ears;
  •     congestion of the eustachian tubes (going from the ears to the throat);
  •     sinus problems (dryness and discomfort);
  •     persistent coughing;
  •     disorder of sense of smell;
  •     mouth breathing (due to the constant nasal congestion);
  •     unsatisfying sleep;
  •     prostration;
  •     bad mood and irritability;
  •     eye sensitivity to light.

The causes of allergic rhinitis

The cause of allergic rhinitis is direct contact with allergens. Thus during breathing they fall on the mucosa of the nasopharynx and irritate it, causing a variety of disease manifestations. Among the most active allergens include:

  •     pollen;
  •     animal dander and pets;
  •     Bird feathers and down;
  •     dust mites and their waste products;
  •     mold and fungi of all kinds;
  •     cockroaches, as well as traces of their presence;
  •     household dust;
  •     cereals;
  •     sawdust;
  •     chemicals.

Allergic rhinitis - is a sharp immune system's response to inhaled irritant potential. She actually comes into confrontation with allergic particles, causing the above symptoms. Most often they appear in individuals in a state of atopy.

As a rule, these people have more than one kind of allergic symptoms, but several. A similar tendency is observed in patients, relatives are also subject to such a variety of allergies. It is usually from:

  •     nose;
  •     eyes;
  •     ears;
  •     pharynx.

When the immune system for the first time faced with allergens, it takes them as alien hazardous substances. Therefore, the body reacts to them rapidly, producing antibodies.

In the subsequent penetration of the antibodies affect allergens, accompanying this release of histamine and other chemicals. Thus there are sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, itching. This process is called sensitization.

This allergic rhinitis is fraught with negative consequences such as:

  •     sinusitis;
  •     bronchial asthma;
  •     plug in the ear;
  •     inflammation of the ear;
  •     sleeplessness;
  •     irritability;
  •     migraine;
  •     fatigue.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis

The diagnosis is established on the testimony of history and on the basis of the identified symptoms. In the acute form of manifestation appointed special allergy tests. They may be in the form:

  •     TST (the upper layer of the skin a small amount of liquid is applied to the allergen, and then an injection is performed);
  •     immunosorbent assay enzyme label (to determine blood levels of IgE antibody);
  •     nasal swab (it allows the fence to find out the level of eosinophils - white blood cells entering the nasal discharge).


For the treatment of this disease are used:

  •     antihistamines that do not cause drowsiness (they are well eliminate sneezing, itching, runny nose);
  •     decongestants (to help get rid of the nasal sinuses);
  •     corticosteroid nasal spray (characterized by fast action and helps to avoid the appearance of characteristic symptoms);
  •     ipratropium bromide (stop runny nose);
  •     cromolyn sodium (opposed not only nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing, and irritation of the eyes);
  •     leukotriene modifier (effective for rhinitis, itching, nasal sinuses, sneezing).

Prevention of allergic rhinitis

To do this, follow a few requirements:

  •     avoid contact with the allergen;
  •     More frequent wet cleaning and monitor accumulation of mold, hair, dust;
  •     wash bedding in hot water only;
  •     coming from the street to wash the nose and eyes;
  •     close the windows in the hours of greatest concentration of pollen.