Thursday, July 9, 2015

Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease. Included in the group of systemic inflammation of connective tissues. It affects the small joints of the type of progressive destructive and erosive polyarthritis.

How does rheumatoid arthritis

The disease manifests itself mirrored. That is, if a joint hurts on the left hand, so sore and right. But first there is the general symptoms that can last for years. Articular lesions may come back to haunt after 1-2 years after the onset of initial symptoms.

Among the initial symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are marked:

  •     weakness;
  •     inflammation of the salivary glands;
  •     a slight increase in body temperature;
  •     loss of appetite;
  •     fatigue;
  •     depression;
  •     burning, tingling or numbness in the hands and feet;
  •     sweaty / cold hands, feet;
  •     lack of production of saliva and tears (dysfunction of the lacrimal glands, saliva);
  •     muscle aches;
  •     pain from prolonged sitting;
  •     symptoms similar to influenza;
  •     pleurisy (pain in the chest when breathing);
  •     itching and burning in the eyes;
  •     nodules under the skin.

Further, the disease is actively involves the joints, and you experience the following symptoms:

  •     morning stiffness (the hot and painful joints);
  •     swelling and soft (spongy joints);
  •     stiffness;
  •     symmetrical pain;
  •     pain on palpation;
  •     restriction of movement.

The causes of rheumatoid arthritis

What causes this disease is not clear. However, it found that there are three factors which play an important role in triggering of rheumatoid arthritis. These include:

1. genetic predisposition (genetic susceptibility to autoimmune reactions of nature);

2. The presence of certain infections (viruses syncytium-respiratory infections, Epstein-Barr virus, measles, mumps, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, herpes);

3. internal and external negative effects (giperinsolyatsiya, hypothermia, stress, endocrinopathies, mutagenic drug intoxication and so on.).

Photodermatitis (allergic to the sun)

Photodermatitis is a disease associated with high sensitivity to sunlight. It called visible spectrum light emission in the range 400 to 800 nm, and ultraviolet radiation in the range of 320 to 400 nm. It has several names - are allergic to the sun, photodermatosis, solar dermatitis. There are two types:

1. exogenous (caused by external causes);

2. endogenous (internal trigger are prerequisites).

How does photodermatitis

Allergy to the sun can manifest itself in different ways. In some cases - more intense in others - not. It all depends on the sensitivity of the skin. The greatest response exposed gray-eyed and blue-eyed people with white skin.

The list of symptoms photodermatitis includes:

  •     itching and burning;
  •     redness;
  •     swelling;
  •     a red rash on the body;
  •     pustules and vesicles;
  •     pustular rash.

If photodermatosis combined with another form of allergic intolerance, the listed symptoms may be much larger. They are joined manifestations associated with a different type of allergy. For example, drugs, pollen, food.

Causes photodermatitis

Sunlight visible and invisible spectrum of themselves do not pose a threat of allergy. They only trigger mechanisms. The problem often lies in the substances that are concentrated on the skin or in its thickness.

Exogenous provocateurs photodermatitis include:

  •     lack of vitamins;
  •     metabolic disorders;
  •     poor functioning of internal organs and systems;
  •     the presence of chronic or latent disease.

Endogenous provocateurs sun allergy rank cosmetic products with the addition of:

  •     retinoids;
  •     aniline dyes;
  •     natural essential oils (walnut, bergamot, lavender);
  •     fragrances;
  •     mercury compounds;
  •     polyunsaturated fatty acids;
  •     parabens;
  •     boric acid;
  •     phenol;
  •     salicylic acid;
  •     eosin (in lipstick).

For active photosensitizer rank the following medicines:

  •     contraceptives with a large number of estrogen;
  •     diuretics;
  •     tranquilizers;
  •     antidepressants;
  •     aspirin;
  •     ibuprofen;
  •     cardiovascular medicine;
  •     certain antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline);
  •     antibacterial agents, and so on.

Before you go out in the sun, is to restrict their use. In addition, there are a number of products also can cause photodermatitis. Their list includes all citrus fruits - especially grapefruit, tangerines and oranges. Even one drop of juice on the skin can cause swelling in the long-term presence in direct sunlight.

In acute forms of allergy on the sun exposed to direct rays of the body start various processes. After 30-60 minutes of an intense redness. It is accompanied by pain, itching and burning. This gives rise to a rash, nausea, fever up to 38 degrees, headache, malaise.

In severe forms observed swelling of the skin, redness of the massive manifestation (only resembles a sunburn), suppurating rash and blisters of clear liquid. In addition, there is increased thirst, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, high body temperature.

Among the possible consequences photodermatitis:

  •     dysfunction of the kidneys and adrenal glands;
  •     polymorphic photodermatosis;
  •     solar eczema;
  •     Solar scrapie;
  •     solar prurigo;
  •     light pox;
  •     actinic retikuloid.

Diagnosis photodermatitis

Diagnosis is based on visible symptoms. A special role is played by history as an allergy to the sun can be confused with ordinary sunburn. Therefore also conduct an additional inspection of patient with additional questions. Perform differentiation with burns received as a result of direct sunlight.


The therapy is to eliminate the irritating substance that causes allergic to the sun. It is also necessary to limit the stay under the open sky on a sunny day.

In acute manifestations of the reaction are assigned:

  •     lotions;
  •     headbands;
  •     non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inside;
  •     topical corticosteroids.

In severe current recommended:

  •     Course glucocorticoids inside;
  •     analgesics;
  •     antihistamines;
  •     antiallergic ointments and creams.

In chronic drug therapy used photodermatitis aimed at reducing sensitivity to the effects of the sun. This includes hingamina take hydroxychloroquine or in combination with vitamins "B". Also recommended autolimfotsitoterapiya and corticosteroid ointment.

Prevention photodermatitis

Basic requirements - limited exposure to UV rays. Moderate sun exposure at times alleviate the condition. Furthermore, it is necessary:

  •     wear loose clothing and wide-brimmed hats;
  •     during the active sun do not go out;
  •     use sunscreen;
  •     use sunscreen products with properties (niacin, pantothenic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine);
  •     stick milk diet in acute diseases.