Friday, February 5, 2016

Seasonal allergies

Seasonal allergies - a concept relevant in relation to the two types of allergic reactions to insect venom and pollen (hay fever). If risk of allergy to insects is maintained for a long period (from mid-spring to mid-Autumn), the manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to plants can continue different times - from weeks to 4 months.

An allergy is the result of hypersensitivity of the immune system, which protects the body from penetration of bacteria and viruses. In some cases, the immune system raises a "false alarm" in response to the penetration into the body of certain substances (allergens), which brings no harm, as the enemy, and take appropriate protective measures. This inadequate response is called "allergy"

Symptoms of seasonal allergies

Hay fever can occur at any age, but more often - between 8 and 20 years (at least - after 40 years).

It can manifest itself only itching in the eyes, nose and throat, and rhinitis symptoms: nasal congestion, runny nose, and sometimes coughing. There may be a loss of smell, inflammation of the sinuses (sinusitis) and the accession of asthma (especially wet summer). Atopic asthma is caused by bronchial hyperresponsiveness by inhalation of allergen, which leads to bronchospasm, accumulation of mucus and swelling of the mucous membrane, it provokes suffocation and paroxysmal cough.

plant pollen, can cause the appearance of skin allergic reactions, such as acute urticaria. Usually it lasts from several hours to several days. In contrast to acute, chronic urticaria, which exists for weeks or months, it is very rarely allergic reactions. Most often it is associated with food allergens and additives, as well as drugs.

Hives can take many forms, but it is always characterized by the presence of blisters, which can merge with each other. The rash can appear on any part of the body and be accompanied by severe itching.

Another manifestation of allergic skin reactions is angioedema or angioedema. It can affect the face, lips, eyelids, mucous membranes and other parts of the body. Itching is often lacking, there is a painful burning sensation. Angioedema become life-threatening if it spreads to the mucous membranes of the mouth and pharynx: swollen tongue and the back of the throat cover the airways and can lead to suffocation

Diagnosing Seasonal Allergies

The main diagnostic methods - examination and the patient survey. Questioning the patient or his or her parents - very detailed, includes an analysis of the complaints and possible precipitating factors, medical history, information about diseases of relatives, about the way of life and work conducted by the treatment.

If necessary, the doctor may order a variety of complementary research methods, depending on the individual case.

Determination of immunoglobulin in the blood concentration of E

For the diagnosis of allergy is very important in determining the concentration of blood IgE (immunoglobulin E). Increasing its content favors the development of the body of specific antibodies against allergens. Determination of IgE in serum is carried out, withdrawn from a vein in the patient. To test the use of more than 200 allergens, defined as total and allergen of IgE, thus indirectly judge the allergen, causes the formation of immunoglobulin E and the group responsible for the allergy.

provocation testing

If an allergic reaction develops in response to the alleged allergen, the allergen may be considered causally significant (specific).

skin tests

Adding to the skin (forearm or back) of small amounts of purified allergens in the known concentrations of allergic reactions can be evaluated after 20 minutes. The sample is considered positive if the observed formation of papules, erythema (redness), or a rash.

Basic principles of treatment of seasonal allergies

When it is a dangerous period, the first and most logical precaution - to limit their contact with the allergen. Keep windows closed at home. If possible, use air conditioning. While in the car, pick up the glass. Upon returning from the street, take a shower and rinse your hair. Do not dry laundry outdoors. Working in the garden, you can wear a protective bandage over the nose and mouth.

Minimize the residence time in the open air, especially in the countryside. If you are allergic to fungi spores, not recommended staying in places where there is rotting hay, as well as in the woods and parks with wet fallen leaves. If possible, spend the time on vacation in another climate zone, where flowering is over or not yet started, or where pollen is less than, for example, on the coast.

If possible, go out at the most opportune time. Least of all the pollen in the air is wet on rainy days, and fungal spores - on the contrary, in a dry and sunny weather. On windy days, pollen and fungal spores in the air much longer, besides, they are transported over long distances. So quiet windless days are better suited to stay outdoors. The safest time of day - morning, while still raw pollen. Most fungal spores in the air is in the evening.

Refer to the allergist. It will test, determine what is causing your allergic reaction and prescribe treatment. The most widely used for treatment of allergic diseases used antihistamines. They block the action of histamine, a substance responsible for allergic reactions. Some antihistamines - suprastin, diphenhydramine, tavegil - can often cause drowsiness, it should take into account people, sitting down behind the wheel of a car. a new generation of drugs (loratadine, cetirizine, fexofenadine, ebastine, Kestin) do not have a sedative effect. Significantly reduce the effect or even completely get rid of the allergy can use allergen immune therapy. It is dangerous that the period before subcutaneously administered dose causative allergens identified - this contributes to desensitization, i.e. reduce the sensitivity to this allergen.