Wednesday, July 29, 2015


rapid heart palpitations

Arrhythmia - a condition in which there is a violation of normal frequency, consistency or rhythm of the heart contractions. Normally, the heart rate does not exceed 60 - 90 cuts / min.
Arrhythmias contribute: 1 diabetes and type 2, hypertension, obesity, coronary heart disease, mitral valve prolapse, heart disease, thyroid disease, and others. Women arrhythmias may occur during the premenstrual syndrome.

Arrhythmias can occur in a healthy person while taking certain medications, insect bites, constipation, with overeating and stress. Most cases of arrhythmia occurs with mild symptoms: recurrent feeling a sinking heart, dizziness, bated breath, weakness and fatigue. With the progression of disease associated pain and discomfort in the chest, irregular heartbeat, fainting.

Arrhythmias, does not violate the general conditions do not require treatment. In other cases, treatment should begin with identifying and eliminating the causes that caused the arrhythmia. Assign: antiarrhythmics, cardiac glycosides, anticoagulant.


shortness of breath, headache, disturbance of consciousness, palpitations, nosebleeds

Hypertension - high blood pressure. Hypertension is one of the most common diseases of the cardiovascular system, it suffers every fifth inhabitant of our planet.

Contribute to hypertension: obesity, diseases of the endocrine system and kidneys, stress, heredity, weakness, old age.

Feature hypertension is asymptomatic, but in addition, it is a predisposing factor for the development of stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure. Patients are observed: headaches, arrhythmia, irritability, fatigue. As the disease progresses align: pain in the heart, memory disorders, shortness of breath, breathing becomes shallow. The disease requires timely correct treatment.

In cases where increased pressure normally tolerated, treatment is not required. In other cases, prescribed drugs that normalize blood pressure, salt-free diet is recommended.


fatigue, decreased concentration, dizziness, tinnitus, insomnia, memory loss, decreased performance, squeezing chest pain, heart pain, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction

In the body, each person has a natural "pipeline" - the circulatory system. It is with the help of the internal organs are powered consisting of oxygen and various nutrients. Over time, the blood vessels, as well as any pipes clogged, their walls form plaque, which prevents the normal flow of blood. This is atherosclerosis.

The consequence of this disease is that the internal organs begin to "starve", their work is broken. In the worst case, there is a complete blockage of the vessel, and then can even be fatal. Often it causes atherosclerosis, heart attacks and strokes. Therefore, it is important to keep this natural "pipeline" in order, so to speak, to observe the rules of operation - to eat, to lead sedentary lives, do not have bad habits.

Usually, atherosclerosis develops in the background of the general aging of the body. However, not only the age factor is set. Those at risk include:

  •     males after 40-45 years;
  •     smokers;
  •     obese;
  •     diabetics;
  •     lovers of fatty foods;
  •     People exposed to frequent and severe stress.

Development of the disease

As we have seen, in atherosclerosis is reduced "bandwidth" of the arteries. This occurs as follows: on the inner walls form a small spot, which consist mainly of cholesterol. Over time, they "grow" with connective tissue and become atheroma - in other words, the plaques. Because they artery narrows and deteriorates the bloodstream. As a result, the internal organs are not getting proper nutrition and cease to properly perform its functions.
The disease usually affects the entire body, but developing unevenly. Depending on what struck artery to the greatest degree, distinguish atherosclerosis:

  •     heart;
  •     brain;
  •     the lower extremities;
  •     kidneys;
  •     intestine and m. g.

The plaque itself - the phenomenon is quite unpleasant, but much more dangerous when it breaks the surface. In this case, the affected area start to "stick" platelets and eventually form a clot. It may be so that a piece of plaque or a blood clot destroyed will "travel" through the arteries, stuck in a narrow place and completely block the flow of blood. The consequences can be very sad.


The feature of atherosclerosis is that it develops quickly. Cholesterol builds up plaque gradually increase in size, but the man at the same time does not feel anything. The disease has an effect only when the vessel lumen is narrowed by about 70%. Atherosclerosis is manifested in different ways, it all depends on the principal place of "dislocation" of cholesterol plaques. But there is one common symptom - pain. It is the result of lack of oxygen and nutrition. Weakened "hunger" muscles begin to ache and can not fully work.

If struck by vessels of the brain, the person concerned:

  •     memory disorders;
  •     decrease in mental performance;
  •     fatigue;
  •     headache;
  •     sleeplessness;
  •     dizziness;
  •     noise in ears;
  •     problems with hearing, vision, speech;
  •     incoordination.

The patient becomes irritable and fussy, his emotional state is close to a depressive. In the worst scenario, atherosclerosis, hit vessels of the brain leads to a stroke.

If a large amount of cholesterol deposited on the walls of the coronary arteries, the heart suffers. In particular, developing angina or coronary heart disease, a heart attack can occur. At the same man tormented:

  •     pressing pain, which is deployed in the chest. Pain usually occur during exercise or at the time of stress;
  •     severe shortness of breath. The patient was sorely lacking oxygen, it seems that he is suffocating;
  •     dizziness, headaches. These symptoms are observed in some cases, sometimes even reaching loss of consciousness.

In the case where the plaque formed in the arteries that supply the lower extremities, atherosclerosis is manifested as follows:

  •     feet become cold, sometimes become a pale bluish tint;
  •     People complain about the chill feet;
  •     the pulse of the arteries feet barely detectable;
  •     in the calves when walking there is pain that runs when a person stops. Experts call this phenomenon "intermittent claudication";
  •     wounds do not heal on their feet, in advanced cases formed ulcers, gangrene may develop.

If amazed arteries supplying oxygen and nutrients intestine, these symptoms occur:

  •     colic, abdominal pain. Typically, attacks occur after a meal;
  •     often observed bloating;
  •     possible vomiting.


If the disease has not gone too far, it can be an effective medical intervention. As a rule, prescribers, lowers cholesterol and other fats in the blood. When this does not work, it is necessary to resort to surgical methods. There are two possible options:

  •     expansion of the lumen;
  •     removal of the lesion and its replacement.

Atherosclerosis is necessary to observe a special diet that excludes foods rich in cholesterol. Proper nutrition - the best way to prevent the disease. And of course, you need to quit smoking, increase physical activity. Then the vessels for a long time will remain 'pure'.

Varicose veins of the legs

itching, pain in the knee, nonhealing ulcers, peeling skin, muscle tremors, leg swelling, leg pain

Varicose veins of the legs - a disease that manifests itself stretching and irregular veins, blood flow is accompanied by a violation and failure valves.

Development of the disease contribute to: poor nutrition, overweight, long stay on his feet, endocrine disorders, smoking, heredity, and flat feet. In addition, an important role in the development of the disease plays a defective valve of the venous valves.

Varicose veins of the legs expanded begins with the appearance of a sense of feeling of heaviness in the legs, swollen legs, worse in the evening, fatigue. As the disease progresses align: leg cramps, "protrusion" varices, discoloration of the skin (cyanosis), knot density, unhealed sores, dermatitis (see. The symptoms of dermatitis).


Varicose veins should be complex. An effective treatment is surgical - venectomy (removal of the affected veins). In the initial stages of the disease applied compression and drug therapy.

Tuesday, July 28, 2015

Myocardial (Symptoms and treatment of heart attack)

Heart attack (myocardial infarction) - Acute severe heart disease resulting from insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle. Symptoms of a heart attack - a consequence of the formation of necrosis (necrosis) in the heart.

The main cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Myocardial infarction may occur against the background of an increased angina attacks, causing mental and physical stress.

The disease begins with acute protracted stenokardicheskie attacks, not cropped drugs. Symptoms of a heart attack may last from 30 minutes to several days: there is a pain in the left side of the chest and behind the sternum, radiating to the neck, left shoulder or arm. Growing shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of air, the skin covered by a sticky cold sweat, pale. Can increase the body temperature. The period ends with the formation of podsotrom infarct, clinical manifestations of heart failure still exist, but in a less marked degree. In postinfarction period (6 months after the attack) in the zone of myocardial scar is fully formed, blood pressure and pulse in the normal range.

At the first sign of heart attack and heart attack, seek medical help.

Treatment in most cases is carried out in the intensive care unit. Use: preparations, dissolving thrombus, beta-blockers, anticoagulants.

Sunday, July 19, 2015

Damage to the meniscus

Damage to the menisci ranks first among the internal injuries of the knee. Men meniscus damage are more common than in women. There are several types of meniscal lesions: excessive mobility of the meniscus, a torn meniscus, chronic trauma, cystic degeneration of the meniscus, meniscal degeneration.

Typically, when the meniscus is damaged are marked on the inside of pain, joint effusion. Patients complain of a premonition blocking the joint, its instability, especially when descending the stairs.

When you break the meniscus clicking noted during flexion of the joint and pain


Scoliosis - a serious disease of the musculoskeletal system, in which there is a lateral curvature of the spine and spinal torsional rotation around its axis. Sometimes congenital and acquired scoliosis, but more often - congenital. For scoliosis can cause some disease processes (syphilis, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis) and vertebral fracture.

The disease begins with weakness of the muscles of the back, shoulder blades and serving poor posture. As the disease progresses there is a change of the vertebrae and ligaments, resulting in a distortion.


Treatment of scoliosis conservative and operative. Recommended: physiotherapy, massage, swimming, B vitamins

Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia - a type of abdominal wall hernias. It is the most common form. A defect occurs in the groin area, which causes outward protrusion of the internal organs, forming an oval formation. Most often it occurs in men as they have in the area of ​​the groin spermatic cord passes. It affects middle-aged people - mostly older than 40 years. Inguinal hernia is of two kinds:
  •  Acquisition;
  • congenital.

Symptoms of inguinal hernia

Among the basic symptoms of the disease is marked protrusion of oval or round shape in the groin area. It decreases with increased relaxation and stress at the time. It may be localized to the left or right of the symphysis pubis, located above the inguinal crease. The amount of such protrusions varies from a walnut to a very large bulge.

In addition, there are nagging pains that are aggravated by fiznagruzki, and strain during coughing. There is heaviness in the abdomen, difficulty urinating and a violation of the chair.

When a genetic predisposition (congenital hernia) disease is triggered by the low strength of the connective tissue. Why muscle-tendon channel is not able to withstand the pressure inside the peritoneum, forming a hernial sac.

When acquired form of hernia current impetus for its occurrence is very long, or the DC voltage of the abdominal wall. This is due, for example, with chronic and severe cough, difficulty urinating, regular constipation, excessive toil.

However, regardless of type, inguinal hernia occurs equally. After lengthy fiznagruzok and overvoltage at the bottom of the abdomen (right or left), first pulling sensation arises. Then there is a kind of swelling - the protrusion of the internal organs. So shaped oval or rounded education - hernial sac. It can be worn and uneven contours (in the case of strong protrusion).

Due to the growth in intra-abdominal pressure of adipose tissue, bowel loops and nearby organs tense and put pressure on the abdominal wall. This causes discomfort and pain. Inguinal canal widening. The internal organs are located partly outside the abdominal cavity. Further compression may occur - the so-called hernia incarceration. It is accompanied by constipation, vomiting, nausea, severe pain.


Inguinal hernia treated surgically in one of two ways:

  •     tensioning method;
  •     no tensioning procedure.

The first method applies tension hernia repair. It is literally a cut tissue of the abdomen and groin narrowing the gap in several joints. So the muscle-tendon structure is fixed in the new position. The operation is performed only under anesthesia (of any type).

The second relates to the method, and laparoscopic hernia repair endoproteznaya. Operation with the introduction of the endoprosthesis is to impose a polypropylene mesh to strengthen the abdominal wall. This surgery is performed even under local anesthesia. At times it reduces the risk of complications and repeat the disease. Distinguished by a rapid recovery.

Laparoscopic method of operating does not involve large skin incisions. All manipulations are performed through a tube and cannula. The operation is performed under spinal or general anesthesia.


When the man rose to his feet and knees for two, it became one of his main achievements and challenges at the same time. Walking upright increases the load on the spine as a result of its "parts" wear out, degraded. This process experts called osteochondrosis.

Today, the disease has become a truly mass character: in one way or another extent it affects up to 90% of the people inhabiting the Earth. Such prevalence of low back pain is obliged to sedentary lifestyles and poor diet, which are hallmarks of the modern world. However, those involved in sports, this disease is also not shy away from: excessive exercise are not less harmful to the spine.

However, there is no clear answer as to why developing low back pain. Experts agree that the cause of the disease is becoming a whole range of factors. This heredity and metabolic disorders and obesity, and infections, and many other things. So from back problems no one is immune.


When osteochondrosis is a gradual destruction of the intervertebral discs and all that is in close proximity to them - articular cartilage, ligaments, bone vertebrae. As is known, one of the functions is to maintain the ridge body upright. A intervertebral discs act as shock absorbing pads that are filled with a gelatinous liquid. Thanks to this "cushion" the spine is flexible and easy to accept this or that position.

Due to the excessive workload and shortfall of nutrients in the shell of an intervertebral disc appear microscopic cracks. Subsequently, they are overgrown with scar tissue, but it does not save the situation. Intervertebral disc gradually loses fluid, and with it - shock absorbing properties. As a result, the load is increased, and the disc further collapses. As a result, the vertebrae shift become too mobile, and ligaments and muscles sag. There is a denial of the vessels and nerve fibers.

Trying to fix the situation, the body launches on the affected area the formation of bone spurs that "fetters" dislocation of vertebrae in a kind of shell. These growths are often formed in the wrong place, creating additional problems.

On the basis of what is spine amazed distinguish low back pain:

  •     Neck;
  •     breast;
  •     lumbosacral.

In some cases, it struck several departments - is the most severe form of the disease.

How does osteochondrosis

For a long time the disease may not even be felt. In general, it is characterized by a rich symptoms. The catch is that the manifestations of osteochondrosis can be misleading, because many of them, apparently, are not connected with the spine. For example, he felt pain in his heart, a man goes to the appointment with the cardiologist, and in violation of the genitals - a gynecologist, urologist. Meanwhile, the cause of these problems may be just the destruction of the intervertebral discs. After all ridge contacts with a number of internal organs and has an impact on their work.

In most cases, osteochondrosis observed:

  •     back pain - they may be weak, aching, and very intense;
  •     numbness, coldness of hands or feet;
  •     mobility limitation (can not be fully straighten his back, turn his head);
  •     fatigue, rapid onset of fatigue;
  •     violation of posture - movable vertebrae "migrate" to the new location, curving ridge;
  •     muscle spasms.

All these are common symptoms, but there are specific, which manifest themselves in the defeat of certain spine. Thus, signs of cervical degenerative disc disease are:

  •     headache. First of them is suffering neck, and later whiskey;
  •     pain in the area of ​​the shoulders and arms, numbness;
  •     blurred vision, eye fatigue;
  •     development of vertebral artery syndrome, in which there is noise in the ears, dizziness, "flies" before his eyes, and his head "explode" from the throbbing pain;
  •     sudden fainting - it happens mostly with the elderly.

If the disease gripped the thoracic spine, the person usually complains:

  •     pain, a sense of "stake" in the chest;
  •     discomfort in the blade between the ribs;
  •     Pressing pain in the heart;
  •     the formation of "lump" in his throat;
  •     arrhythmia, high blood pressure;
  •     pain in the abdomen.

With lumbosacral osteochondrosis disturbed patient:

  •     pain, often even "backache" in the area of ​​the lumbar, sacral;
  •     numbness in the legs, their coldness;
  •     failures in the genitals. The men - erectile dysfunction, difficulty with urination, women - trouble conceiving.


To restore the intervertebral disc can not be destroyed, it is an irreversible process. But you can stop the progression of the disease, eliminate unpleasant symptoms. For this purpose, the drug and hardware treatment, massage, special exercises recommended. If the portion of the spine severely impaired, it is necessary to resort to surgery.

Hip Dysplasia

Today, increasingly heard about hip dysplasia in children. Indeed, this disease is very common.

Hip Dysplasia is a flaw - incorrect relative positions of elements of the hip (femoral head, acetabulum, ligaments, muscles). This disease occurs as a result of disruption of the normal development of the hip joint during intrauterine life of the fetus. The main reason is heredity, as well as - diseases of mother during pregnancy, breech presentation, endocrine pathology, deficiency of trace elements and vitamins that promote the correct formation of cartilage and connective tissue.

There are three degrees of dysplasia:

  • predvyvih
  • subluxation
  • dislocation

The diagnosis of "hip dysplasia" is placed on the basis of clinical symptoms, the results of X-ray and ultrasound. This is the most informative diagnostic methods.

The earlier joint dysplasia is detected, the more successful the treatment will be.

Against the background of functional disorders untreated dysplasia of the hip joints can cause disability in early childhood or in adulthood. Against the background of dysplasia at the age of 25 - 55 years may develop dysplastic coxarthrosis - pain, discomfort, discomfort and limited mobility of the joints.


Treatment of dysplasia in children should be supervised podiatrist. Mild dysplasia can be quite broad swaddling. In more severe cases require the use of special tools - tire-spacers. Pori adequate treatment of the newborn child function of the hip joint are reduced by 3 - 4 months of life.

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Osgood-Schlatter disease is a defeat tibial epiphysis head necrosis. Accompanied by the destruction of bone nucleus under the influence of local overloads, local circulatory disorders and permanent injury. Most often it occurs on one leg, very rarely - in two.

It is dystrophy. It occurs mostly in males. The illness affects adolescents aged 10 to 15 years. However, the way to express and youths up to 18 years. It has a few names:

  •     Osgood-Shlyattera;
  •     osteochondropathy tibial tuberosity.

The symptoms of Osgood-Schlatter disease

Among the main symptoms of the disease are observed: the lower zone of knee pain and swelling. The pain is permanent and is enhanced in the following cases:

  •     pressing;
  •     squats;
  •     folding;
  •     walk;
  •     fiznagruzki.

It does not take even at rest. When relying on the knee area sometimes radiates along the tendons. Also noted soft tissue swelling. Movement of the knee free, but accompanied by pain.

The disease does not occur in a vacuum, as it was assumed earlier. It provokes a number of factors - both external and internal. So, it appears after injuries, bruises, sports, especially where there are elements of active load on your knees. Mostly it susceptible adolescents and youths involved in sports such as athletics (heavy and light), the struggle of all kinds, football, hockey, acrobatics, skiing, volleyball, tennis, basketball.

Pathological process samootgranichivayuschiysya. It provokes a heavy load on the tendon 4 head thigh muscles, which is connected to the tibial tubercle. The pain is localized in the lower area of ​​the knee. Moving covers it completely. Flexion and extension of the joint uncomplicated, but extremely painful. Amplified by repeated loads.

The disease long enough. It ends with the growth of the organism. Prognosis is favorable. However, from time to time after exercise and sports may be manifested recurrent pain in the patellar tendon attachment point. Also in the final is probably the formation gnarled growths below the knee, and the occurrence of rheumatic response to weather changes.


Treatment of the disease therapeutic. It consists mainly of physiotherapy:

  •     electrophoresis procaine and calcium (alternately), aminophylline, cocarboxylase, lidocaine (for eliminating inflammatory processes);
  •     mud baths;
  •     paraffin applications;
  •     shock wave therapy;
  •     Use ozokerite;
  •     local UV irradiation;
  •     massage and so on.

But most importantly - providing rest the affected limb. To do this, use the forced immobilization using plaster cuff. But that, in extreme cases, usually fairly simple limit loads on foot. It plays an important role and a spa treatment. Surgery is rarely used. It consists in fixing a bone graft to the tuberosity of the tibia.

Friday, July 17, 2015

Obstructive sleep apnea

Snoring is the primary symptom of obstructive sleep apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea - a serious disease that is characterized by the development of pauses in breathing during sleep. During the night it can be observed up to 400 stops breathing (3 - 4 hours). Such breathing stops contribute to the development of cardiac arrhythmias, stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden death during sleep. Development of the disease contribute to: polyps in the nose, congenital abnormalities of the nasal passages, enlarged tonsils, sleep deficit, obesity, intake of alcoholic beverages, smoking, and aging.

Obstructive sleep apnea is shown snoring and periodic bouts of sleep apnea, the duration of which more than 10 seconds. Because of the night snoring day marked drowsiness, headache, irritability.

Treatment: If the cause of obstructive sleep apnea are pathological changes, such as a deviated septum, treatment - surgery. When snoring may appoint medication.


Red swollen nose, severe discomfort and, of course, snot - this picture is painfully familiar to everyone. Runny spares neither adults nor children, and he often makes itself felt at least once a year. It is so common, that it is all to become accustomed and do not consider something out of the ordinary. Meanwhile, rhinitis may be different and treat it dismissively not worth it. Such carelessness is fraught with complications of the common cold or the transition to the chronic form, when it is much more difficult to cure.

What happens in the nose rhinitis

As with any medical term ending in "IT" Rhinitis means inflammation. In this case, inflamed nasal mucosa. To understand what happens, you need to have an idea of ​​how to work the body. So, the primary function of the nose - to handle incoming outside air before it enters the lungs. In fact, it is a natural conditioner that:

  •     cleans
  •     moisturizes,
  •     warms, cools the air to the desired temperature.

For its adjustment responsible blood vessels that are part of the nasal mucosa. If the air is cold, they expand, and if hot - narrowed. As a result, the temperature of air entering the lungs is always from 28 to 30 ° C.

When the nose fall viruses or bacteria, allergens, any other irritant substances, the work of the blood vessels is broken. They overflow with blood, mucous membrane swells. As a result, the person becomes hard to breathe through the nose. Soon the stagnant blood in the vessels begins to "sweat". In other words, the liquid part of it seeps through the walls of vessels and irritate the inner membrane of the nose, causing the hard to produce mucus. All of this flows out in the form of the notorious snot.

Varieties rhinitis

    If the cause of the inflammation becomes a virus, a bacterium or a fungus, so called infectious rhinitis. It is the most common option. The most common infectious rhinitis affects children's noses: snot many kids there several times a year. But adults do not shy away from a runny nose, especially in winter.
    Non-infectious rhinitis can be caused by a variety of factors. For example, it becomes the cause of various allergens, chemicals, too cold, or vice versa, hot air, injury to the nose, some systemic diseases. Of special note is vasomotor rhinitis in which the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa may not work properly due to neuro disorder.

How does inflammation

Due to the prevalence of the phenomenon of rhinitis, the symptoms are known to all. If the inflammation is acute form, it is developed as follows:

  •     a person begins to "tickle" in the nose, a feeling of dryness, an uncontrollable desire to sneeze. Often, tears streaming from his eyes, slightly raised temperature, headache. All this testifies to the beginning of the inflammatory process. This step generally lasts only a few hours.
  •     Soon the nasal mucosa swells, which is why it becomes difficult to breathe. Usually this state is described by the words "stuffy nose". The sense of smell deteriorates markedly, changing taste perception familiar dishes. His nose starts flowing stream clear watery liquid. Because under her nose and upper lip appears irritation: skin turns red, painful cracks formed. The voice becomes nasal, continued tearing.
  •     A few days later nasal thicken and become yellow or green. This is due to the fact that added to the mucus pus. The human condition improved slightly, but the nose is still enshrined. Headache retreats, and the number of precipitates decreases markedly. At this stage, people are not bothered itchy nose and tears from her eyes. Gradually normal nasal breathing and a runny nose completely passes. Typically, this occurs at the eighth to fourteenth day after the initiation of disease.

When vasomotor rhinitis picture is somewhat different. The sense of smell is usually not affected, but sneezing is paroxysmal in nature. Watery snot, a lot of them, thus laying alternately one or the other nostril. These symptoms usually appear in the morning after sleeping on the background of high blood pressure or the sudden drop in air temperature.

Allergic rhinitis also has its own characteristics. It is characterized by severe itching in the nose, debilitating bouts of sneezing and nasal discharge is not streams and river flowing "water".


It all depends on the cause of rhinitis. If it is caused by an infection, prescribe antiviral or antibacterial drugs, and drugs that eliminate the symptoms of the common cold - swelling, congestion and so on. D. When allergic rhinitis best option - to establish allergen and avoid contact with him patient. If this is not possible, also assigned medication. A vasomotor rhinitis sometimes treated surgically.


Most people faced with this most unpleasant phenomenon, while at the tender age. That children's ears are most prone to otitis media, though by this scourge is not insured or one adult. The result is almost always the same: a strong "shooting" pain, nagging and poison life. A man willing to do anything to get rid of it. But here it is important not to engage in independent action as soon as possible to see a doctor.

Most people faced with this most unpleasant phenomenon, while at the tender age. That children's ears are most prone to otitis media, though by this scourge is not insured or one adult. The result is almost always the same: a strong "shooting" pain, nagging and poison life. A man willing to do anything to get rid of it. But here it is important not to engage in independent action as soon as possible to see a doctor. He adequately assess the situation and prescribe treatment, whereby the ears very soon come back to normal. If you tighten a visit to a specialist or to overdo it with folk remedies, you can lose your hearing - partially or fully.


Otitis is a condition in which one of the departments inflamed ear. To understand the process, you need to become better acquainted with these departments and their functions.

    Speaking of "ear", we usually mean the ear. However, this is only one of its departments - outside. The auricle plays the role of the receiving antenna that catches the sound. In addition to her outer office consists of the ear canal and eardrum.
    Immediately after the membrane is a tiny cavity, where the sounds are processed and amplified. This is the middle part of the ear. It includes so-called sound bone, specially interconnected. They perform the function of transmitting sound.
    The inner ear is a department of the channel system, twisted in the form of a snail. Here, the sound is converted into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain. Snail - this is the organ of hearing.

Inflamed can any of these departments. Accordingly, there is an external otitis, middle and inner. The first - the most harmless, the second - the most common, and the third - the most dangerous. The following will be discussed is about otitis media, which is diagnosed in most cases.

As the inflammation

It all starts with the eustachian tube, which is responsible for maintaining the "right" pressure in the middle ear department. As a result of acute respiratory infections or other causes this tube swells and does not cope with the task. As a result, in the middle ear is formed and accumulates inflammatory fluid, which are beginning to breed bacteria or viruses. This process is called otitis media. This inflammation is almost always a complication of infectious diseases nasopharynx.

Symptoms of otitis

  • Otitis media rarely goes unnoticed. Usually, it has both general and local manifestations, the main ones are:
  •     ear pain - it can be aching, throbbing, "shooting". These sensations arise due to the fact that accumulated liquid pressure on the eardrum;
  •     hearing loss. Usually it is only temporary, the ability to hear normal maximum returns in a few weeks;
  •     congestion, tinnitus. Feelings about the same as a person experiences during takeoff or landing;
  •     fever. Usually it is low, but the mercury can show and 39 ° C, if acute otitis media, or inflammation develops simultaneously with the flu;
  •     discharge from the ear. Accumulated pus may break the eardrum and get out. Usually after that ear pain subsides or passes at all. The membrane then grows and hearing problems do not arise. But if no pus comes out, it can get inside the skull and cause brain abscess or meningitis;
  •     malaise. When otitis person feels weak, can not sleep, he loses appetite.

If the inflammation affects the external part of the ear, this is manifested by redness, swelling, ulcers, or the appearance of acne. Internal otitis makes itself felt dizziness, imbalance, nausea and vomiting. The last two symptoms can occur in young children and in inflammation of the middle ear.

Specificity of "child" otitis

Toddlers ears hurt much more often than adults. This is due to the peculiarities of children's anatomy. In children the Eustachian tube is a narrow and short, so for her the infection reaches the middle ear faster. In addition, kids often get cold, respectively, increases the risk of otitis media. The problem is that young children, and especially infants, adults can not explain what they are concerned about. As a result, parents have to guess about the pain in the ears of circumstantial evidence:
  •     gratuitous, seemingly crying spells;
  •     anxiety and irritability;
  •     sleep problems;
  •     appetite loss.

Check suspicion of otitis is quite simple. It is enough to gently push the tragus - is a projection-hryaschik, which is at the base of the ear. If the child responds to the sharp cry, probably, he otitis.


In the case of otitis inflammation usually removed using medicines. As a general rule, prescribe antibiotics drops (in the nose - a vasoconstrictor, in the ear - anti-inflammatory, relieves pain), antiseptic solution for washing. In some cases it is necessary to pierce the eardrum to get rid of pus. Proper treatment can only assign an otolaryngologist, so with otitis visit to a specialist is required.


Sinusitis - a disease of the paranasal sinuses.

Distinguish: catarrhal and purulent sinusitis, the flow - acute and chronic. Typically, sinusitis occurs as a complication of SARS and influenza, the common cold undertreated.

The disease starts with the swelling of the sinuses, resulting in impaired ventilation. In sinus gradually accumulated mucus that with the progression of the disease turns into pus. It is noted: nasal congestion, persistent headache, fever.

In addition, impaired sense of smell and dream, patients complain of fatigue and general weakness.


Prescribers relieving mucosal edema.

When purulent inflammation shows the use of antibiotics, restorative, anti-allergic and detoxification agent. In chronic sinusitis treated surgically - maxillary sinusotomy.

Sore throat

There are few people who have never in my life did not suffer from angina. Meanwhile, very few people have the right idea about what this disease is and what it is dangerous. Some genuinely believe that the angina can get sick, just get your feet wet or inhaling cold air.

Certainly, hypothermia contributes to development of the disease. However, the root cause is always the infection. And not some, but very specific. Usually this streptococcus, in some cases - Staphylococcus. So, a sore throat is a contagious disease. Sent it:

  •     the air;
  •     food;
  •     contact-household path.

Sore throat begins suddenly and lasts a short time. Theoretically recovery may occur by itself, without any drugs, but in practice almost always takes place medical intervention. Leave this disease without attention, or self-medicate - too great a risk. Firstly, a sore throat may be a symptom of other, more dangerous disease. Secondly, angina often causes complications and causes of rheumatism, renal or heart failure.


When the entire body suffers from angina, but the brunt assume tonsils. This bean-shaped formations, which are located on either side of the throat just behind the language. They are called glands, and the Latin name sounds like «tonsillae». Accordingly, the inflammation of the tonsils termed "tonsillitis". Many people use the term as a synonym for a sore throat, but these are different things. Tonsillitis is the only one of its symptoms. That is in itself an inflammation of the tonsils - is not angina. These concepts should be distinguished.


Angina is not one of those diseases which goes unnoticed. It starts rapidly and is developing very rapidly, while delivering a person a lot of inconvenience and discomfort. In particular, for angina is characterized by such symptoms:

  •     severe sore throat, whose intensity increases with swallowing;
  •     a sharp increase in temperature;
  •     an increase in the size of the tonsils, the formation of plaque on their yellowish-white;
  •     intoxication with all its consequences - headache, loss of appetite, weakness, chills, body aches, sweating;
  •     swollen lymph nodes located under the ears and under the jaw. When pressed on lymph nodes there are painful sensations;
  •     children may have vomiting, diarrhea, pain in the ears.

The disease is not always flows the same way. Depending on the severity of symptoms and the severity of the disease usually distinguished forms of angina:

  •     Bluetongue;
  •     follicular;
  •     lacunar.

The easiest form of a catarrhal. From the other two, it differs in that the plaque on the tonsils little or no (glands just red), temperature exceeds 37,5 ° C, and the lymph nodes are enlarged slightly. For follicular angina characterized by pustules the size of a pin head, and for lacunar - yellowish-white coating that can be easily removed. The latter form is the most severe.

Difficulties diagnosing

On the one hand, to recognize angina is easy: it takes just open his mouth wide and look at the tonsils. On the other hand, inflamed tonsils and coated coating may be symptoms of many other diseases. For example, diphtheria, scarlet fever, infectious mononucleosis, gonorrhea, syphilis.

Each of these diseases are treated differently, so it is important to put the correct diagnosis. Make it can only be a specialist who does not will confuse a red throat. And if in doubt, to dot the «i» will help laboratory studies.


The most loyal and reliable way to overcome a sore throat - to take antibiotics. That and their doctors prescribe. The main thing is that the patient has not stopped to drink tablets as soon as it becomes easier. Otherwise, the high risk of complications.

Gargling and neglect is not: it can significantly reduce the pain. And of course, we must not forget about fluids and bed rest.


Adenoids - a pathological increase in nasopharyngeal tonsils. The disease is common among children aged 1 year to 15 years. Its development is often repeated microbial and viral upper respiratory tract infection, susceptibility to allergies, childhood infectious diseases, immune deficiencies, hereditary.

The disease usually has a long duration. The first manifestations are - shortness of nasal breathing and serous nasal discharge. Shortness of breath leads to sleep disturbance, as children snore during sleep and sleep with your mouth open. Sleep disturbance leads to lethargy, fatigue, there is a weakening of memory, apathy, decreased performance at school, change of voice. In addition, when adenoids are marked persistent headaches. In some cases, most often neglected - in the child's mouth is always open, the nasolabial folds are smoothed. Against the background of the adenoids may occur laryngospasm, often a cough, especially at night, shortness of breath.

Treatment of adenoids surgery.

Sunday, July 12, 2015

Why do we cry?

Mission 1: vision

Basal tears should be allocated constantly to moisten the eyeball and the inner surface of the eyelids. If they are not produced in sufficient quantity - then you have something wrong with the body, an urgent need to seem ophthalmologist. Most likely, he will prescribe "artificial tears" - a special liquid, which is sold in pharmacies. In composition it is similar to our usual tears and instillation into the eyes creates the optimum level of hydrated.

If you treat people suffering from dry eye syndrome, think about one of the possible causes:

  •     long work at the computer;
  •     diabetes;
  •     taking certain medications;
  •     abuse of cosmetics or use of substandard care products for the eyes;
  •     wearing contact lenses;
  •     menopause (menopause) in women;
  •     living in an area with a dry climate and a large amount of dust, etc.

The composition of the basal tears also includes a strong antibacterial agent - lysozyme (muramidase). He is able to break down the walls of many kinds of germs and kills 90-95% of the bacteria that are found in its path.

Mission 2: protection

Reflexive tears - the defenders of our eyes from dust, dirt, specks, dropped cilia. As soon as the eye feels a foreign body - he immediately tries to wash away the intruder strong stream. Irritants can be even tiny invisible particles: steam, smoke, corrosive substances. That is why we have watery eyes from smoke, fumes or urban smog bow.

Sometimes even the pure air without contaminants poses a threat to the eye: in fact, if it is too much blowing. After all, you too are crying in the wind? This is because the sharp air flow dries the eyes. And because they always have to be moistened - the tears begin to be produced in emergency mode. So do not be angry with the body when he makes you cry from a mere weather: because it helps to protect one of the most delicate organs of your body - your eyes.

Mission 3: display of emotions

The nature of emotional tears are not yet fully understood, but many scientists today are inclined to believe the following: of all living creatures on our planet, only people develop the ability to shed tears in moments of emotion. And this unique feature has helped our species rapidly evolve.

The fact that the screaming in pain, howling, whining, do sharp movements under the influence of fear are able to a variety of animals. But all these symptoms of feelings work against their enemy (predator) can see from far away the victim and to conclude: "The object is weakened. You can take ".

Only the cunning man has learned to share strong feelings with the help of tears. They can see only our closest relatives: they will understand sympathize help. While the enemy from a distance just will not show our emotions - and so he did not guess that we are vulnerable. This is such an amazing natural cunning.

Some of you still thinks that crying - the lot of wimps? In fact, this talent will survive the strongest and most cunning members of our tribe.

Why is salty tears?

In fact, all the fluids of the body a little bit salty. We just do not usually want to check it. And so, blood and sweat, and urine have in their composition this component. Normal salt - ie, sodium chloride - one of the main components of our body.

But here's an interesting question: Why salty tears do not burn our eyes? After a drop of brine or sea water that gets into the eye, it can cause severe irritation. The thing is that the sodium chloride concentration in the tear is less than 1%, while in sea water it exceeds 3%. Say more: the salt dissolved in the water even create a certain comfort to the eyes, protecting them both from excess moisture (after all, got into eyes unsalted water also causes discomfort) and from drying out.

Friday, July 10, 2015

Allergic conjunctivitis

Any illness creates some inconvenience for people. But of particular discomfort felt when suffering one of the most vulnerable and sensitive organs - eyes. This problem is familiar to so many: conjunctivitis occurs in children and the elderly, men and women. That is, all who have eyes. However, the most susceptible to the disease, those who:

  •     It has a weakened immune system;
  •     wear soft contact lenses;
  •     It takes corticosteroids;
  •     It has chronic nasal lesions, lacrimal;
  •     prone to allergies.

Of all the diseases of the eye it is the most common is conjunctivitis. It is easily treatable, but in the absence of proper attention may become chronic or even damage eyesight (such as nearsightedness).

Features of the disease

The eyeball and the inside of the eyelid covers the transparent, almost invisible film. Its thickness is not greater than one millimeter. This film, which is responsible for dry eye, and there conjunctiva. When it becomes inflamed, it begins conjunctivitis. The reasons for which an illness is pretty much the main ones are:

  •     viruses;
  •     bacteria;
  •     allergens;
  •     other irritants (e.g., evaporation, chemical substances).

And viral and bacterial conjunctivitis is contagious. The only difference is that in the former case, the infection spreads through airborne droplets, and the second - in contact with the affected areas. So first, as a rule, one eye becomes inflamed and then the other. Although under certain conditions the second eye infection can be avoided.

Acute conjunctivitis is developing rapidly and has a bright symptoms and chronic, on the contrary, it proceeds rather slowly and not so clearly evident.

This disease can be in two forms: acute and chronic. The person experiences severe itching, pain, swelling of the eyelids (upper and lower), and sometimes stinging. With the transition of allergic conjunctivitis in the chronic stage are stored only irritation of eyes and itching. The rest flows smoothed, but almost constantly. Disease manifests only on contact with the allergen.

    Drug conjunctivitis develops within 6 hours after taking the medications. During this time, there are growing rapidly swelling, excessive tearing, itching, burning sensation in the eyes and the inability to open it. After prolonged administration of the drug appears follicular form of allergic conjunctivitis. It reminds spring catarrh. In this case, the disease progresses slowly - about 4 months. After the abolition of the drug all the symptoms gradually disappear.
    Atopic conjunctivitis is a seasonal exacerbation. Often accompanied by allergic rhinitis and hay fever seen with. The manifestation of the disease is characterized by burning eyes, itching, severe pain, photophobia, and lacrimation. Also in the course of having swelling, redness and excessive mucus. For this form of allergic conjunctivitis is very dangerous secondary infection. From this age appear defeated, scarring, and hypertrophy of the papillae.
    Spring catarrh common in the southern regions. He mainly affects adolescents, children and men. Has a clear affection for the season: it begins in the spring and the autumn subsides. One of the first manifestations - itching. He gradually intensified, becoming unbearable, especially in the evening. Then, swollen eyelids, conjunctiva reddens. On the conjunctiva appears tuberosity - papillary proliferation of dense individual character. Sometimes the disease becomes severe, affecting the cornea and limb. The disease has a long duration.

Among the consequences of allergic conjunctivitis:

  •     loss of visual acuity;
  •     bronchial asthma;
  •     the accession of secondary infection;
  •     purulent conjunctivitis;
  •     blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids);
  •     keratitis (inflammation of the cornea);
  •     iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris eyes);
  •     angioedema;
  •     anaphylactic shock.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. For this study the clinical history and characteristics of symptoms. If you want to perform a differential diagnosis with other types of the disease:

  •     fungal conjunctivitis;
  •     viral conjunctivitis;
  •     bacterial conjunctivitis.

The most informative method is to bacteriological studies and bacterioscopic detachable eye and mucous membrane swabs. It is also practiced by cytological analysis of scrapings. To understand the cause of the allergic reaction is assigned a procedure to establish the cause of allergies. For this purpose, the skin tests and examinations of blood serum for the presence of antibody IgE.


Despite the presence of specific symptoms, in many cases, even the doctor can not determine the cause of the disease, namely, it depends on it, what will be the treatment. Just identify the pathogen can only be in the lab. But often such studies is not necessary, most conjunctivitis tested by themselves.

When bacterial infection effective drops or an antibiotic ointment, but are sometimes used pills and even injections. To clear the secretions from the eyelids, you should use cloth that has been soaked in boiled water. It is important to observe hygiene and produce all manipulations with eyes (to dig, wiping) only with clean hands.

Nasal allergy

Allergic rhinitis is a nasal inflammatory response to allergen. He also is known as hay fever. It is characterized by episodic or chronic disturbances of nasal breathing. It can be of two types:

1. persistent (year-round);

2. intermittent (seasonal).

What are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis

After contact with the allergen reaction occurs almost immediately or can be delayed for a few hours - from 4 to 8 disappears after 7-10 days. Among the symptoms that manifest themselves in a few minutes, are:

  •     intense sneezing (in chronic allergies is usually observed in the morning, after waking up);
  •     rhinorrhea (runny nose are generally transparent and has a liquid consistency, but may be a yellowish viscous and the presence of nasal or sinus infection);
  •     tickling in the throat (as a result of a drip infusion, often accompanied by a cough);
  •     itchy eyes and watery eyes (a sign combining with allergic conjunctivitis);
  •     itching and tickling in the nose and ear.

By delayed symptoms occurring after a period after exposure to the allergen, are:

  •     nasal sinuses, and wheezing;
  •     allergic crease in the area of ​​the nose (from the constant rubbing and sniff provoked rhinitis);
  •     allergic bruising under the eyes (dark circles);
  •     pain and discomfort in the face;
  •     hearing problems or the pressure in the ears;
  •     congestion of the eustachian tubes (going from the ears to the throat);
  •     sinus problems (dryness and discomfort);
  •     persistent coughing;
  •     disorder of sense of smell;
  •     mouth breathing (due to the constant nasal congestion);
  •     unsatisfying sleep;
  •     prostration;
  •     bad mood and irritability;
  •     eye sensitivity to light.

The causes of allergic rhinitis

The cause of allergic rhinitis is direct contact with allergens. Thus during breathing they fall on the mucosa of the nasopharynx and irritate it, causing a variety of disease manifestations. Among the most active allergens include:

  •     pollen;
  •     animal dander and pets;
  •     Bird feathers and down;
  •     dust mites and their waste products;
  •     mold and fungi of all kinds;
  •     cockroaches, as well as traces of their presence;
  •     household dust;
  •     cereals;
  •     sawdust;
  •     chemicals.

Allergic rhinitis - is a sharp immune system's response to inhaled irritant potential. She actually comes into confrontation with allergic particles, causing the above symptoms. Most often they appear in individuals in a state of atopy.

As a rule, these people have more than one kind of allergic symptoms, but several. A similar tendency is observed in patients, relatives are also subject to such a variety of allergies. It is usually from:

  •     nose;
  •     eyes;
  •     ears;
  •     pharynx.

When the immune system for the first time faced with allergens, it takes them as alien hazardous substances. Therefore, the body reacts to them rapidly, producing antibodies.

In the subsequent penetration of the antibodies affect allergens, accompanying this release of histamine and other chemicals. Thus there are sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, itching. This process is called sensitization.

This allergic rhinitis is fraught with negative consequences such as:

  •     sinusitis;
  •     bronchial asthma;
  •     plug in the ear;
  •     inflammation of the ear;
  •     sleeplessness;
  •     irritability;
  •     migraine;
  •     fatigue.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis

The diagnosis is established on the testimony of history and on the basis of the identified symptoms. In the acute form of manifestation appointed special allergy tests. They may be in the form:

  •     TST (the upper layer of the skin a small amount of liquid is applied to the allergen, and then an injection is performed);
  •     immunosorbent assay enzyme label (to determine blood levels of IgE antibody);
  •     nasal swab (it allows the fence to find out the level of eosinophils - white blood cells entering the nasal discharge).


For the treatment of this disease are used:

  •     antihistamines that do not cause drowsiness (they are well eliminate sneezing, itching, runny nose);
  •     decongestants (to help get rid of the nasal sinuses);
  •     corticosteroid nasal spray (characterized by fast action and helps to avoid the appearance of characteristic symptoms);
  •     ipratropium bromide (stop runny nose);
  •     cromolyn sodium (opposed not only nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing, and irritation of the eyes);
  •     leukotriene modifier (effective for rhinitis, itching, nasal sinuses, sneezing).

Prevention of allergic rhinitis

To do this, follow a few requirements:

  •     avoid contact with the allergen;
  •     More frequent wet cleaning and monitor accumulation of mold, hair, dust;
  •     wash bedding in hot water only;
  •     coming from the street to wash the nose and eyes;
  •     close the windows in the hours of greatest concentration of pollen.

Thursday, July 9, 2015

Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disease. Included in the group of systemic inflammation of connective tissues. It affects the small joints of the type of progressive destructive and erosive polyarthritis.

How does rheumatoid arthritis

The disease manifests itself mirrored. That is, if a joint hurts on the left hand, so sore and right. But first there is the general symptoms that can last for years. Articular lesions may come back to haunt after 1-2 years after the onset of initial symptoms.

Among the initial symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis are marked:

  •     weakness;
  •     inflammation of the salivary glands;
  •     a slight increase in body temperature;
  •     loss of appetite;
  •     fatigue;
  •     depression;
  •     burning, tingling or numbness in the hands and feet;
  •     sweaty / cold hands, feet;
  •     lack of production of saliva and tears (dysfunction of the lacrimal glands, saliva);
  •     muscle aches;
  •     pain from prolonged sitting;
  •     symptoms similar to influenza;
  •     pleurisy (pain in the chest when breathing);
  •     itching and burning in the eyes;
  •     nodules under the skin.

Further, the disease is actively involves the joints, and you experience the following symptoms:

  •     morning stiffness (the hot and painful joints);
  •     swelling and soft (spongy joints);
  •     stiffness;
  •     symmetrical pain;
  •     pain on palpation;
  •     restriction of movement.

The causes of rheumatoid arthritis

What causes this disease is not clear. However, it found that there are three factors which play an important role in triggering of rheumatoid arthritis. These include:

1. genetic predisposition (genetic susceptibility to autoimmune reactions of nature);

2. The presence of certain infections (viruses syncytium-respiratory infections, Epstein-Barr virus, measles, mumps, hepatitis B, herpes zoster, herpes);

3. internal and external negative effects (giperinsolyatsiya, hypothermia, stress, endocrinopathies, mutagenic drug intoxication and so on.).

Photodermatitis (allergic to the sun)

Photodermatitis is a disease associated with high sensitivity to sunlight. It called visible spectrum light emission in the range 400 to 800 nm, and ultraviolet radiation in the range of 320 to 400 nm. It has several names - are allergic to the sun, photodermatosis, solar dermatitis. There are two types:

1. exogenous (caused by external causes);

2. endogenous (internal trigger are prerequisites).

How does photodermatitis

Allergy to the sun can manifest itself in different ways. In some cases - more intense in others - not. It all depends on the sensitivity of the skin. The greatest response exposed gray-eyed and blue-eyed people with white skin.

The list of symptoms photodermatitis includes:

  •     itching and burning;
  •     redness;
  •     swelling;
  •     a red rash on the body;
  •     pustules and vesicles;
  •     pustular rash.

If photodermatosis combined with another form of allergic intolerance, the listed symptoms may be much larger. They are joined manifestations associated with a different type of allergy. For example, drugs, pollen, food.

Causes photodermatitis

Sunlight visible and invisible spectrum of themselves do not pose a threat of allergy. They only trigger mechanisms. The problem often lies in the substances that are concentrated on the skin or in its thickness.

Exogenous provocateurs photodermatitis include:

  •     lack of vitamins;
  •     metabolic disorders;
  •     poor functioning of internal organs and systems;
  •     the presence of chronic or latent disease.

Endogenous provocateurs sun allergy rank cosmetic products with the addition of:

  •     retinoids;
  •     aniline dyes;
  •     natural essential oils (walnut, bergamot, lavender);
  •     fragrances;
  •     mercury compounds;
  •     polyunsaturated fatty acids;
  •     parabens;
  •     boric acid;
  •     phenol;
  •     salicylic acid;
  •     eosin (in lipstick).

For active photosensitizer rank the following medicines:

  •     contraceptives with a large number of estrogen;
  •     diuretics;
  •     tranquilizers;
  •     antidepressants;
  •     aspirin;
  •     ibuprofen;
  •     cardiovascular medicine;
  •     certain antibiotics (tetracycline, doxycycline);
  •     antibacterial agents, and so on.

Before you go out in the sun, is to restrict their use. In addition, there are a number of products also can cause photodermatitis. Their list includes all citrus fruits - especially grapefruit, tangerines and oranges. Even one drop of juice on the skin can cause swelling in the long-term presence in direct sunlight.

In acute forms of allergy on the sun exposed to direct rays of the body start various processes. After 30-60 minutes of an intense redness. It is accompanied by pain, itching and burning. This gives rise to a rash, nausea, fever up to 38 degrees, headache, malaise.

In severe forms observed swelling of the skin, redness of the massive manifestation (only resembles a sunburn), suppurating rash and blisters of clear liquid. In addition, there is increased thirst, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, high body temperature.

Among the possible consequences photodermatitis:

  •     dysfunction of the kidneys and adrenal glands;
  •     polymorphic photodermatosis;
  •     solar eczema;
  •     Solar scrapie;
  •     solar prurigo;
  •     light pox;
  •     actinic retikuloid.

Diagnosis photodermatitis

Diagnosis is based on visible symptoms. A special role is played by history as an allergy to the sun can be confused with ordinary sunburn. Therefore also conduct an additional inspection of patient with additional questions. Perform differentiation with burns received as a result of direct sunlight.


The therapy is to eliminate the irritating substance that causes allergic to the sun. It is also necessary to limit the stay under the open sky on a sunny day.

In acute manifestations of the reaction are assigned:

  •     lotions;
  •     headbands;
  •     non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inside;
  •     topical corticosteroids.

In severe current recommended:

  •     Course glucocorticoids inside;
  •     analgesics;
  •     antihistamines;
  •     antiallergic ointments and creams.

In chronic drug therapy used photodermatitis aimed at reducing sensitivity to the effects of the sun. This includes hingamina take hydroxychloroquine or in combination with vitamins "B". Also recommended autolimfotsitoterapiya and corticosteroid ointment.

Prevention photodermatitis

Basic requirements - limited exposure to UV rays. Moderate sun exposure at times alleviate the condition. Furthermore, it is necessary:

  •     wear loose clothing and wide-brimmed hats;
  •     during the active sun do not go out;
  •     use sunscreen;
  •     use sunscreen products with properties (niacin, pantothenic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, pyridoxine);
  •     stick milk diet in acute diseases.

Wednesday, July 8, 2015


Hair loss (alopecia) - a disease manifested by partial or complete hair loss on the scalp and other body parts. Sometimes congenital and acquired baldness. It occurs in both children and adults. Arises as a result of infection in, physical trauma, stress and genetic predisposition. Women - preferably after pregnancy.

Alopecia (baldness) begins suddenly on the scalp, at least - on the chin, cheeks, skin, age. Often, there is a loss of hair in the shape of a circle - single or multiple foci. In addition to hair loss, changes in the scalp: it becomes sluggish, shiny, erythematous (reddened), gradually smoothed. When a malignant form of alopecia observed loss of eyelashes, hair in the beard, mustache, armpits, pubic. Furthermore, there may be changes in the hematopoietic system.


There are two treatment options:

- Operational (Hair Transplantation)

- Without the operational

For topical treatment of external ointments, suspensions, creams, tonics and irritating agitated slurry sprays containing androgens and glucocorticoids. Additionally, you can use drugs, normalizing hemostasis.


Headache when changing weather

Probably every adult at least once in his life felt the headache that is the change of weather. There it is a change in the weather to clear cloudy (and vice versa), and atmospheric pressure caused by irregular (and racing with these recently become sharper).

However, despite the fact that meteodependent people are more and more, scientists are not yet fully studied the process of headaches at change of weather. Medical research in this area showed that the change in atmospheric pressure affects the change in the level of oxygen in the body and head blood vessels begin to narrow or expand to compensate for these changes. And meteodependent people at greater risk to experience headache when the atmospheric pressure is increasing and smaller increases when the air temperature.

And now let's see what we can do for that would, if not prevent headaches when the weather changes, then at least reduce the risk of its occurrence. Here are a few solutions to this problem:

1. Keep track of weather changes and their response to them.

If you think that the headache too often worried about you because of changes in the weather, try to see to it that the conditions under which it occurs. Watch the weather forecast. Keep a journal. There are even special Electronic Barometer with warnings about the risk of migraine. But it's best to use our unique service "Headache by changes in the weather on the map of Russia"

2. Take anti-inflammatory or pain medications.

Very good aid in such a nature headaches preparations based on ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid.

3. Try an ionizer or humidifier.

Try using a humidifier or ionizer. It is proved that a clean and lightly moist air into the room (especially in the bedroom) has beneficial effects on brain activity and decrease fatigue. Get plenty of rest.

4. Learn more about headaches and their occurrence.

Be interested in any information on this subject. Learn more about what happens headache, its symptoms, how it occurs and what is treated


Anorexia is a syndrome consisting in lack of appetite in normal physiological needs of the organism in the food. Accompanied by a large number of metabolic diseases, infections, diseases of the digestive tract.

By species flow is several forms:
  •     primary;
  •     drug.

According to the degree of manifestation occurs:

  •     cleaning and nervous;
  •     restrictive and nervous.

How does anorexia

Anorexia is shown in the following symptoms:

  •     excessive attention to the weight of your own body;
  •     the desire to monitor the food and limit food intake;
  •     very fast weight loss in a short period;
  •     fascination with counting calories in each product;
  •     a feeling of heaviness and fullness by eating small portions;
  •     fatigue;
  •     Frequent weighing;
  •     fainting or lightheadedness;
  •     shortness of breath, and weakness;
  •     sudden disruption of menstruation;
  •     coldness of the upper and lower extremities;
  •     chilliness;
  •     low body temperature;
  •     delayed growth and physical development (adolescence);
  •     signs of anemia;
  •     fragility of the nail plate;
  •     dull and dry hair;
  •     dry skin;
  •     Excessive cleanliness and akkuratizm;
  •     frequent denial of the meal;
  •     increased self-criticism to themselves and their figure;
  •     mood swings;
  •     depression;
  •     passion for cooking with the refusal of food.

The causes of anorexia

Depending on the type of the disease, it has several causes:

  •     nerves;
  •     on the basis of the drug;
  •     on the basis of internal physiological abnormalities.

Nervous (or mental) Anorexia is a result of obsessions and conditions associated with dissatisfaction with the figure or body weight. It also develops on the background of depression, schizophrenia and catatonic stupor. Prerequisites to this there are many:

  •     unhealthy climate of communication among family (dysfunctional family);
  •     negative attitude to food intake (most often because of the force-feeding in childhood and overfeeding);
  •     low self-esteem, increased self-criticism (including against body proportions, shapes);
  •     perfectionism, obsessive behavior, obsession (in an effort to attain perfection, "standard" of beauty);
  •     unmet need for attention and love.

Drug anorexia called laxatives and diuretics to use to get rid of eaten. It can also be a side effect of the effect of other drugs - hormones antagonists, stimulants, antidepressants.

Primary anorexia (on the basis of internal physiological abnormalities) occurs due to the emergence of a number of disease states:

  •     neurological disorders;
  •     hormonal dysfunctions;
  •     urogenital diseases;
  •     malignancies;
  •     imbalances in metabolism;
  •     any chronic pain;
  •     diseases of the digestive tract;
  •     disorders of the endocrine system.

As the progression of patients experienced anorexia flow steps:

  •     increased fatigue and weakness from the most ordinary actions: washing after waking up, walking around the room, cleaning, etc .;
  •     there are drowsiness and a sense of chronic lack of sleep, lethargy reactions;
  •     deteriorating condition of hair and nails (they are thinner, are cut, fade);
  •     It changes the skin (it gets "translucent" effect fades, it becomes dark around the eyes);
  •     worsens the microcirculation in blood vessels (appears syndrome cold hands and feet, cyanosis, hypothermia);
  •     disappears menstruation (amenorrhea) or gets unstable;
  •     there are problems with the kidneys, intestines, pancreas, liver, stomach;
  •     exacerbated by the endocrine and central nervous system;
  •     develop osteoporosis, syncope, anemia.

The most serious consequences of the disease include:

  •     arrhythmia;
  •     hypotension;
  •     cardiac abnormalities;
  •     convulsions;
  •     changes in brain structure;
  •     mental disorders;
  •     endocrine dysfunction;
  •     bulimia;
  •     infertility;
  •     death.

Diagnosis of anorexia

Diagnosis is based on:

  •     visual cues;
  •     characteristic behavior;
  •     results of medical history;
  •     medical examination.


Treatment of this disease is carried out based on the severity:

    Elementary and light shapes can be treated at home. It takes only a correction of diet and nutrition. And also - individual and group therapy.
    Severe treated in a hospital. This - the prerogative of psychologists and psychiatrists. The basis of specific medications are taken drugs and psychotherapy. To strengthen the body appointed means of stimulating appetite - special teas, vitamin B12, and so Reglan. Prescribing the 6- or 7-course split meals, multivitamin, hormonal medication, insulin dosage limited. In extreme conditions recommended to use hypnosis in microdozes antipsychotics, tranquilizers.

Prevention of anorexia

To prevent this disease should pay attention to:

  •     optimal psychological environment;
  •     intra-favorable climate;
  •     food culture;
  •     timely treatment of diseases provocateurs.


Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis is a chronic disease of the thyroid gland. It manifested in the form of inflammatory autoimmune nature. Due to the destruction of follicular cells and follicular thyroid varying severity. Also called Hashimoto's thyroiditis (Hashimoto).

The disease has several derived forms:

  •     postpartum;
  •     atrophic;
  •     hypertrophic.

How does autoimmune thyroiditis

The vast majority of symptoms of the disease due to a lack of secretion of thyroid hormones. However, in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidism symptoms phases not being felt. And only with time appear:

  •     obesity (a significant increase in weight);
  •     violation of thermoregulation of the body;
  •     constipation;
  •     muscle aches;
  •     puffiness of face and swelling of the neck;
  •     slow heart rate;
  •     depression;
  •     menstrual irregularities (usually - irregular);
  •     fragility and loss of hair;
  •     Problems with the mucous membranes;
  •     the impossibility of conception.

Then the state changes and possible manifestation of hyperthyroidism. Excessive release of thyroid hormones in the blood triggers:

  •     an increase in blood pressure;
  •     increased sweating;
  •     increased heart rate (tachycardia);
  •     shaking hands (tremor).

What causes autoimmune thyroiditis

The causes of the disease can be a variety of factors.

    Genetic background. Autoimmune thyroiditis - a hereditary disease. But while the experts have not made a final conclusion whether it is leading. It is believed that the gene factor - it's one of the few prerequisites. Therefore, the presence of these patients in the home increases the risk of thyroid at times.
    Radiation exposure. It is ranked not only increased radiation background of the environment, and other factors. For example, irradiation with radiation during radiotherapy disposal of oncology.
    Excess iodine. An excessively high content of iodine in the body can become an agent provocateur of autoimmune thyroiditis. In conjunction with other factors, he also triggers the disease.
    Hormonal factors. Sex hormones play a major role in the emergence of the disease. The proof is the fact that women get 5-7 times more often than men. It is also important that women have thyroid problems related to pregnancy and childbirth. In 20 percent of cases they then develop into AIT.

It is developing the disease without obvious symptoms. Or may be minor violations of the thyroid gland. Sometimes it takes years before there are serious dysfunction. Quite often signal the onset of the disease is an increase in the crop. This provokes not only uncomfortable, but also problems in swallowing food.

So, observed:

  •     feeling of tightness in the throat;
  •     feeling of a lump when swallowing;
  •     slight pain in the thyroid;
  •     pain on palpation of the prostate;
  •     joint pain;
  •     slight malaise and fatigue.

After 5-15 years from the date of occurrence of the disease, hypothyroidism gradually increases. And then - only in the presence of adverse factors. These include:

  •     exacerbation of various chronic illnesses;
  •     physical stress;
  •     mental overload;
  •     viral diseases;
  •     acute respiratory infections.

Diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis

In euthyroid stage to determine the exact diagnosis is extremely problematic. The criteria allowing it to establish reliable disease include a combination of the following features:

  •     the presence of primary hypothyroidism (overt or subclinical);
  •     hypoechogenicity thyroid (the typical signs on examination ultrasound);
  •     increase in the level of antibodies circulating in the thyroid gland.

The absence of even one of them calls into question the diagnosis of why he is probabilistic in nature.


Finally get rid of this disease is impossible. Modern drugs can only maintain an optimal level of concentration of hormones, the normal metabolic processes and a stable cardiac function.

Treatment is carried out by several methods:

  •     medication;
  •     surgically.
Medicament approach is based on the use of:
  •     thyroid medications (replacement therapy with L-thyroxine, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine);
  •     glucocorticoid agents (usually in conjunction autoimmune thyroiditis, and subacute);
  •     preparations based on white cinquefoil - zobofita, Endocrinol, endonorma, album);
  •     immunomodulators (T-activin, they can go on their own or in combination with thyroid drugs).

Surgery is rarely practiced in exceptional cases. It is prescribed only when the crop and sharply increasing threat to neighboring tissues. For example, while squeezing the esophagus, trachea and blood vessels.

Prevention of autoimmune thyroiditis

It consists in:

  •     timely treatment for medical assistance if discomfort in the area of ​​the thyroid gland;
  •     under constant medical supervision of genetic predisposition, aggravated goiter;
  •     rational use of iodine and products in which it is contained.

Monday, July 6, 2015

Symptoms and treatment of thrush in children

This disease, like thrush, often can appear in children. Often thrush occurs in infants and newborn babies. And it is worth noting that it has its own factors and reasons.

 The main factors, due to which there is a thrush in children, barely born, considered the failure of the protective forces of the new organism, acidosis oral, goiter, birth of a child during its passage through the birth canal. Also, the disease develops when the parents violate the rules of personal hygiene kid. It is these factors, regardless of whether they are present in the child together or apart and lead to the fact that starts to develop thrush.

 It is noteworthy that yeast may have different symptoms, depending on how the disease occurs - in mild, moderate or severe.

 If your child has a mild form of thrush, the general state of his health will not be disturbed, while the main symptom is the appearance on the tongue and oral mucosa cheesy plaque. If properly prescribe treatment, the disease in this form could take place on the 5-7 day.

 But if the degree of thrush moderate will appear on the mucous membrane coating is removed with difficulty, on the site of the raid will remain a bleeding surface. The temperature can rise to 37-38 degrees, the disease may appear soon again.

 When severe thrush in the baby have a higher temperature than the average plaque extends to the throat and from very difficult to get rid of.

 Diagnosis of the disease can be put on the results of laboratory tests and on the basis of clinical manifestations. Generally, treatment of thrush depends on the extent to which the disease severity expressed. If the disease is mild, it is enough to treat locally mouth yodinolom, soda solution or aniline dyes. In more severe cases even appoint immunostimulant and antifungal drugs. Also helping antifungal ointment.

 In order to prevent further relapses necessarily have to be the child's thrush cure to the end.

 Those parents who choose not to pay attention to the disease, and let things take their course, must be prepared for the fact that their children the symptoms can become more painful in the future and sustainable. It left untreated thrush in children may begin to spread on the skin, esophagus, reproductive organs. Very rarely, yet sometimes can not be avoided Candida sepsis, when the infection spreads to other organs through the bloodstream, and then attacks the brain, heart, eyes and joints.

 To avoid this, parents need to closely monitor the health of your child, and if something happens immediately start treatment.

Cellulite: the causes of, and treatments for prevention

Very many women care about the so-called "orange peel" that occurs in the most enticing parts of the bodies. How to get rid of this scourge?

 About Cellulite and its treatment written many articles and even books. He is said to have virtually all women (in the early stages it is not visible), and even men. The main reason for its occurrence is slowing the transformation of fat due to insufficient production of specialized cells - adipocytes. In turn, the reason for a decrease in their generation are some hormonal disorders. And that hormonal disorders are a major cause of cellulite. From this we can conclude that in the risk group teenagers and pregnant women. But not so scary in itself is not a pathology of cellulite and in no way interferes with vital functions, it is normal, it can be said, even physiological cosmetic defect. Get rid of this trouble can be non-surgical methods, but only in the early stages, the more stage - the longer and be less effective treatment of cellulite. At the initial stage of cellulite shows little tissue edema. It is worth noting that the "orange peel" often appears in the buttocks, forearms and abdomen. The process can be slow, if you observe the following recommendations.  

1. Do not ever wear tight pants and underwear, unwanted parts to wear uncomfortable high heels, as it violates the circulation.

2. on the possibility to take a contrast shower.  

3.Regulyarno do physical exercises for problem areas.

4.Pravilno eat.  

On the second or third stage of cellulite becomes visible and attentive to others. It is a dense lumps of skin. In such a situation can help a professional anti-cellulite massage at home. The procedure is not too pleasant, it can be said, even painful, but often very effective. With the massage normal blood flow in tissues mikrotserkulyatsiya. It is advisable to use the techniques of reflexology for quicker, visual result of effort.

 If you read the article on the Internet, you can find more exotic ways of getting rid of this cosmetic defect. These include a honey massage. The purpose of this massage is the same as the anti-cellulite, but about its effectiveness is difficult to judge, since the large-scale studies have been conducted. But damage from a massage in any case will not. As you know, honey - a very useful product that contains a lot of useful substances. Massage recommended rates, the duration of the course - 2 weeks. A simpler method available absolutely everyone, is to take a bath with sea salt. If you have time and money, you can walk to the sessions of mesotherapy - not exactly become superfluous.  

In difficult situations, the fourth stage of the defect when the anti-cellulite massage is not helping, will only be effective surgery - liposuction. Under general anesthesia, the fat deposits are removed, the skin is smoothed. But the effect of this operation will not last forever if you do not comply after the above recommendations.

Saturday, July 4, 2015

Diagnosis and treatment of particularly infantile autism

Experts refer to children with autism disorders, which are characterized by qualitative abnormalities taking place in social communication and associated with limited interaction with the outside world and repetitive set of actions and interests. In the diagnosis of the disease is usually taken into account a number of points, including clinical parameters, hereditary factors, environmental conditions. Most often, the disease manifests itself in the first five years of life and, as usual, is diagnosed on the basis of the various features of behavior, regardless of whether the patient has any medical comorbidity.

Correctly diagnosing a disease, it should be distinguished from other abnormalities, including mental retardation from schizophrenia, different syndromes (Rhett, Geller et al.), As well as disorders of deprivation. For example, infaltilny autism (where the patient is unable to speak or in some other way to communicate) could be confused with mental retardation if not observed in autism patients' ability to communicate with inanimate objects. Treatment of psychosis in this case there is a certain way, different from the treatment of other diseases.

 Despite strenuous efforts to find an effective method of biological therapy is a way to not be found. Today, the confrontation disease is mainly in the use of various methods of special education and training. In addition, the therapy involves a special diet, as well as receive special sedation, strengthen the patient's condition.

 Currently, treatment of this disease are already used various methods by which the disease is quite well adjusted. Effective therapy is directed at developing the child's independence, autonomy and even some ability to adapt to society. Among the most common methods are considered to be especially popular audio-vocal training, as well as so-called holding therapy (forced use), based on violent embrace of technique is aimed at the forced opening of lack of communication between the child and his mother. Incidentally, the absence of this relationship in this case is the main anomaly.

 Among the commonly used techniques in the treatment of autism - and frequent therapeutic physical activity. Effective exercise helps the child better mastery (control her own body), to deal with various obstacles.

How to prevent the occurrence of scoliosis in children

The most common disease among school-age children - curvature of the spine, or scoliosis. Prevention and early identification of the disease in the early stages to help stop the progression of the disease and prevent its negative effects.

The age group of risk of scoliosis are children 5-17 years. Development of the disease contributes to incorrect posture during lessons - the uneven distribution of the load on the back muscles and spine entails bending shape and the displacement of the vertebrae, and also causes fatigue and general malaise. Zapuskaniya disease can lead to very serious consequences, which will help get rid of only the best clinics in the world, so you should choose: either to prevent the disease in time, or later need expensive treatment. Among the preventive measures of struggle with scoliosis careful regular examination of the child: it is necessary to set at the same level, whether he shoulders and blades are positioned symmetrically on the sides of the torso hands, pay attention to how the child holds his neck. If signs of scoliosis is present, it is necessary to address urgently to the doctor, who will appoint an individual mode. Scoliosis patients attributed to eat rich in vitamins and trace elements food, sleeping on a hard bed, and spend more time in the fresh air of walking.

Effective prevention of illness serves as a daily exercises and correct posture when writing: chin slightly lowered, raised his head and handed back, feet flat on the floor is strictly at right angles.

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Methods of protection against muscle damage

The statistics for the beginning and middle of the last century, saying that all athletes who prefer other sports skiing, have been the trauma patients, carefully superimposed on a limb last strong cast. Skiing is one of the most traumatic and dangerous in our day, but medicine does not stand still and offer outdoor enthusiasts a range of activities aimed at reducing the risk of getting a fracture or sprain, which can permanently put a man in a hospital bed, to make people forget for training and competition. If your area of ​​activity - sales of servers IBM, and way of life can be considered sedentary, the recommendations of experts need to listen very carefully.  

Do not underestimate even minor injury, the effects of which are already in a couple of days. A little stretching, resulting in the classroom, promotes damage to the muscle fibers - thus impairing blood flow. Muscles become more vulnerable, and the next injury could happen even at light load - for example, in the warm-up, or trying to be moved to a new location HP Proliant server while working in the office, not to mention the full training. Each session would further aggravate the situation, the muscle will no longer work effectively, and the verdict of doctors - to forget about active sports for maintaining the ability to move - for you will be a real surprise.  

Even more problematic are torn ligaments and cartilage injury - in this case, without medical care can not do, but even in the case of a professional approach to the treatment completely restore lost joint mobility does not succeed, and even simple task to install shredders in the office or connect the computer It becomes a major issue. It is clear that to fully protect yourself from injury while skiing lessons fail, but to take measures to prevent them can and should be. So, in the fall is to take care of the training of the muscles - that promote long walks and climbs the stairs for a while forgetting about the ability to use an elevator. Before the start of classes, do not forget about the knee pads and special bandages to protect the joints. If the injury could not be avoided, try to avoid for a while reinforced loads to allow muscle damage as possible to restore performance.