Friday, October 9, 2015

Allergic conjunctivitis

Any illness creates some inconvenience for people. But of particular discomfort felt when suffering one of the most vulnerable and sensitive organs - eyes. This problem is familiar to so many: conjunctivitis occurs in children and the elderly, men and women. That is, all who have eyes. However, the most susceptible to the disease, those who:

    It has a weakened immune system;
    wear soft contact lenses;
    It takes corticosteroids;
    It has chronic nasal lesions, lacrimal;
    prone to allergies.

Of all the diseases of the eye it is the most common is conjunctivitis. It is easily treatable, but in the absence of proper attention may become chronic or even damage eyesight (such as nearsightedness).

Features of the disease

The eyeball and the inside of the transparent cover of the century, almost invisible film. Its thickness is not greater than one millimeter. This film, which is responsible for dry eye, and there conjunctiva. When it becomes inflamed, it begins conjunctivitis. The reasons for which an illness is pretty much the main ones are:

    other irritants (e.g., evaporation, chemical substances).

And viral and bacterial conjunctivitis is contagious. The only difference is that in the former case, the infection spreads through airborne droplets, and the second - in contact with the affected area. So first, as a rule, inflamed one eye and then the other. Although under certain conditions the second eye infection can be avoided.

Acute conjunctivitis is developing rapidly and has a bright symptoms and chronic, on the contrary, it proceeds rather slowly and is manifested not so clearly.

This disease can be in two forms: acute and chronic. The person experiences severe itching, pain, swelling of the eyelids (upper and lower), sometimes stinging. With the transition of allergic conjunctivitis in the chronic stage are stored only irritation of eyes and itching. The rest flows smoothed, but almost constantly. Disease manifests only on contact with the allergen.

    Medicinal conjunctivitis develops within 6 hours after taking the medications. During this time, there are growing rapidly swelling, excessive tearing, itching, burning sensation in the eyes and the inability to open it. After prolonged administration of the drug appears follicular form of allergic conjunctivitis. It reminds spring catarrh. In this case, the disease progresses slowly - about 4 months. After the abolition of the drug all the symptoms gradually disappear.
    Atopic conjunctivitis has a seasonal exacerbation. Often accompanied by allergic rhinitis and hay fever seen with. The manifestation of the disease is characterized by burning eyes, itching, severe pain, photophobia, and lacrimation. Also in the course of having swelling, redness and excessive mucus. For this form of allergic conjunctivitis is very dangerous secondary infection. From this age appear defeated, scarring, and hypertrophy of the papillae.
    Spring catarrh common in the southern regions. He mainly affects adolescents, children and men. It has a clear affection for the season: it begins in the spring and the autumn subsides. One of the first manifestations - itching. He gradually intensified, becoming unbearable, especially in the evening. Then, swollen eyelids, conjunctiva reddens. On the conjunctiva appears tuberosity - individual papillary proliferation of dense nature. Sometimes the disease becomes severe, affecting the cornea and limb. The disease has a long duration.

Among the consequences of allergic conjunctivitis:

    loss of visual acuity;
    bronchial asthma;
    the accession of secondary infection;
    purulent conjunctivitis;
    blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids);
    keratitis (inflammation of the cornea);
    iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris eyes);
    anaphylactic shock.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. For this study the data history and characteristics of symptoms. If you want to perform a differential diagnosis with other types of the disease:

    fungal conjunctivitis;
    viral conjunctivitis;
    bacterial conjunctivitis.

The most informative method is to bacteriological studies and bacterioscopic detachable eye and mucous membrane swabs. It is also practiced by cytological analysis of scrapings. To understand the cause of the allergic reaction is assigned to the procedure of establishing the cause of allergies. For this purpose, the skin tests and examinations of blood serum for the presence of IgE antibodies.


Despite the presence of specific symptoms, in many cases, even the doctor can not determine the cause of the disease, namely, it depends on it, what will be the treatment. Just identify the causative agent is possible only in laboratory conditions. But often such studies is not necessary, most conjunctivitis tested by themselves.

When bacterial infection effective drops or an antibiotic ointment, but are sometimes used pills and even injections. To clear the secretions from the eyelids, you should use cloth that has been soaked in boiled water. It is important to observe hygiene and produce all manipulations with eyes (to dig in, wiping) only with clean hands.

Nasal allergy

Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa allergy. He also is known as hay fever. It is characterized by episodic or chronic disturbances of nasal breathing. Can be of two types:
1. persistent (year-round);
2. intermittent (seasonal).

What are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis
After contact with the allergen reaction occurs almost immediately or can be delayed for a few hours - from 4 to 8 disappears after 7-10 days. Among the symptoms that manifest themselves in a few minutes, are: intense sneezing (in chronic allergies is usually observed in the morning, after waking up); rhinorrhea (runny nose are generally transparent and has a liquid consistency, but may be a yellowish viscous and the presence of nasal or sinus infection); tickling in the throat (as a result of a drip infusion, often accompanied by a cough); itchy eyes and watery eyes (a sign combining with allergic conjunctivitis); itching and tickling in the nose and ear.
By delayed symptoms occurring after a certain period after exposure to the allergen, include: nasal sinuses, and wheezing; allergic crease in the area of ​​the nose (from the constant rubbing and sniff provoked rhinitis); Allergic black eyes (dark circles); pain and discomfort in the face; hearing problems or the pressure in the ears; congestion of the Eustachian tubes (coming from the ears to the throat); sinus problems (dryness and discomfort); persistent coughing; disorder of sense of smell; mouth breathing (due to the constant nasal congestion); unsatisfying sleep; prostration; bad mood and irritability; eye sensitivity to light.

The causes of allergic rhinitis
The cause of allergic rhinitis is direct contact with allergens. Thus during breathing they fall on the mucosa of the nasopharynx and irritate it, causing a variety of disease manifestations. Among the most active allergens include: pollen; animal dander and pets; Bird feathers and down; dust mites and their waste products; mold and fungi of all kinds; cockroaches, as well as traces of their presence; household dust; cereals; sawdust; chemicals.
Allergic rhinitis - is a sharp immune system's response to inhaled irritant potential. She actually comes into confrontation with allergic particles, causing the above symptoms. Most often they appear in individuals in a state of atopy.
As a rule, these people have more than one kind of allergic symptoms, but several. A similar tendency is observed in patients, relatives who were also exposed to similar kinds of allergies. It is usually from: nasal; eyes; ears; pharynx.
When the immune system first encounters allergens, it takes them as alien hazardous substances. Therefore, the body reacts to them rapidly, producing antibodies.
In the subsequent penetration of the antibodies affect allergens, accompanying this release of histamine and other chemicals. Thus there are sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, itching. This process is called sensitization.
This allergic rhinitis is fraught with negative consequences such as: sinusitis; bronchial asthma; plug in the ear; inflammation of the ear; sleeplessness; irritability; migraine; fatigue.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis
The diagnosis is established on the testimony of history and on the basis of the identified symptoms. In the acute form of manifestation appointed special allergy tests. They may be in the form of skin test (the upper layer of the skin a small amount of liquid is applied to the allergen, and then an injection is performed); Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark (to determine blood levels of the antibody immunoglobulin E); nasal swab (his fence allows determine the level of eosinophils - white blood cells entering the nasal discharge).

For the treatment of this disease are used: antihistamines that do not cause drowsiness (they are well eliminate the sneezing, itching, runny nose); decongestants (to help get rid of the nasal sinuses); corticosteroid nasal spray (characterized by fast action and helps to avoid the appearance of characteristic symptoms); ipratropium bromide (stop runny nose); cromolyn sodium (opposed not only nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing, and irritation of the eyes); leukotriene modifier (effective for rhinitis, itching, nasal sinuses, sneezing).

Prevention of allergic rhinitis
To do this, follow a few requirements: avoid contact with the allergen; More frequent wet cleaning and monitor accumulation of mold, hair, dust; Only wash bedding in hot water; coming from the street to wash the nose and eyes; close the windows in the hours of greatest concentration of pollen.

Allergies to animals

allergic to animal allergens intolerance is allocated animals in the environment. It is the body's response to certain stimuli. Accompanied by the development of specific symptoms, which can be severe or mild. It refers to a group of the most common types of allergies.

How does allergic to animals
The list of the main manifestations of the disease include: redness and itching of the skin (in special cases - burning); shortness of breath with suffocation and shortness of breath; dry cough and wheezing (often audible even from a distance); eye irritation with tearing, redness, inflammation and itching; sneezing, liquid discharges from the nose and nasal sinuses; headaches (sometimes accompanied by dizziness); the weakness of the body and loss of attention.
When a complex pattern is observed prolonged exacerbation of asthma, allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis.

Causes of allergies to animals

The sources of allergic reactions are, in fact, all animals - pets, farm and wild. The most common reasons are: the cat; sheeps; Guinea pigs; rabbits; horses; rats; Parrots; hamsters; dogs.
First of all, allergies associated with wool and fur of these animals. However, not only she is allergic component. This list also includes other products of their life: the saliva; excrement; exfoliated skin; horny scales; serum (part of blood); urine.
The most provocative irritability has sebum, urine and epithelium. The most allergenic droppings - parrots and pigeons, urine - cats, dogs and medium-sized laboratory animals, saliva - horses, dogs and cats.
Most of allergen exposure occurs if inhaled together with fumes and dust. Also plays an important role and tactile touch to the products of animal - to wool, skin, urine and saliva. The most severe form of the disease occurs when an allergic reaction to horses and rodents (mice, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters).
The disease is prolonged. Most can reach six months. At the same time suffering from allergies: urticaria, or atopic dermatitis (itching and rashes on the skin); asthma (asthma, breathing problems, wheezing in the chest, dry cough); allergic conjunctivitis (watery eyes, burning and stinging in the eyes, eyelid edema); allergic rhinitis (runny nose, nasal sinuses, itching, sneezing).
The most dangerous consequences include angioedema; eczema; loss of consciousness; swelling of the throat; coma; anaphylactic shock.

Diagnosis of allergy to animals
The diagnosis is based on a number of factors: history, patient complaints, medical examination, special examination.
The latter is a skin test. They also called scarification. Executed with the application of the allergen on the skin highlighted a specially marked place. It is included in the liquid composition.
Most often used for this procedure, the inner surface of the forearm, which mark out the types of samples. Then make a scratch with a sharp object or perform interdermalnoe introduction. If you have a sensitivity to the stimulus, the reaction occurs in the next half hour. It may seem like a slight redness or rash intensely expressed.

The most appropriate treatment - immunotherapy. It allows giposenzibilizirovatsya, reducing sensitivity to allergens animals. During the course of therapy is injected under the skin of a small volume of allergic substances. It promotes the production of antibodies the human immune system and prevents acute reaction to a stimulus.
At the beginning of the treatment dose administered the least 1 time per week. Based on the severity of the disease, this procedure may take up to several months. In the following will be sufficient Allergy 1 the injection every 4 weeks. Immunotherapy allows to permanently get rid of severe symptoms when exposed to potential irritants.
In addition, effectively relieve symptoms: treatments for asthma, conjunctivitis; antihistamines; nasal sprays and aerosols.

Prevention of allergies to animals
With such a type of disease it is crucial. Is a very large list of restrictions and special procedures. Allergy sufferers should: avoid contact with animals and their metabolic products; remove from the house or apartment all potential "collectors' fur, saliva and exfoliated skin - carpets, upholstered furniture; held twice a week, wet cleaning; wash your pet with special shampoos once every seven days (not their own); use of air purifiers; monitor the cleanliness and feeder cells (also not on their own); restrict access to the animals in the bedroom or any other personal space (if it is impossible to avoid contact); disinfect the seat of animal detergents based on chlorine.