Sunday, March 15, 2015


Itchy skin - one of the most distressing symptoms that a person can experience. Fortunately, in most cases the competent doctor is able to identify the cause of itching and eliminate it.
General Information
Itchy skin - it is quite frequent unpleasant sensation that causes the desire to comb the affected area of ​​the skin. Itching can be acute or chronic, local (to be felt at some one particular area of ​​the skin) or generalized. Itching in itself is not a disease - it is just a symptom of certain skin diseases, disorders of the internal organs and the nervous system. However, severe itching capable of causing human suffering incredible. Endure itching often even more difficult than the pain.
Combing leads to increased itching, redness and inflammation of the skin. The site of injury can penetrate the infection that causes pustular skin diseases.

Causes of itching
Oddly enough, the pathophysiology of pruritus is very complex. Itching is the result of a cascade of humoral and neuro-reflex responses, which can be run by various factors.
The most common causes local itching:
- Dry skin;- An infection of the upper layer of the skin, such as folliculitis and impetigo;- Itching is one of the first symptoms of contact, allergic and atopic dermatitis - allergic reactions to certain drugs, chemicals, plants, insect bites, etc .;- Itchy rash on the skin accompanied by one of the symptoms of childhood infections (chicken pox, measles);- Parasitic infections, such as lice (mostly itching of the scalp), mites (characterized by itching combined with mange strokes on the skin), pinworms (cause intense itching in the anal area for children).
Genital itching occurs predominantly in women. The reason for this are abundant leucorrhea, candidiasis, trichomoniasis, irritating urine in diabetes, gout, inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, sexual neuroses, in some cases, girls pinworms.
The causes of generalized itching include:
- Liver disease accompanied by jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia;- Endocrine diseases (diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism);- Some blood diseases (iron deficiency anemia, polycythemia vera and others.);- Mental disorders;- Dermatoxerasia;- Some cancers.Also produce "senile pruritus" - unexplainable intense itching in people over 70 years in the absence of obvious reasons.

As we have already said, itching is not an independent disease, but a symptom. That is why the presence of pruritus doctor first performs a thorough diagnosis (which may include a variety of research based on the clinical symptoms and the particular situation) and then prescribes a treatment.
To weaken the sense of itching can use the following local media:
- The action of cold (cold shower, a cold compress towel soaked in cold water, but it should be remembered that prolonged exposure to moisture can adversely affect the skin in allergic diseases);- Lotion with menthol and camphor (have a local anesthetic effect, have a cooling and soothing effect on the skin);- Antihistamines, topical (creams and ointments).Antihistamines for oral imazi containing glucocorticosteroids should not be used to consult with your doctor.Avoid exposure to heat, bright sunlight, exercise. Wear loose cotton clothing.


Dermatitis - a syndrome is an inflammatory skin reaction to various stimuli. Distinguish contact dermatitis and drug reaction.

 General Information
Distinguish contact dermatitis and drug reaction. Contact dermatitis occur when the direct effects of the stimulus on the skin, toksidermii foreign substances penetrate into the body, causing a number of changes, one manifestation of which is dermatitis. For example, if the inflammatory reaction in the skin with the cream occurred with any drug substance that is contact dermatitis, and if the same material received in the body through the intestines (tablets or with food), and rash occurred - a drug reaction.
In addition, such diseases include dermatitis is seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff, acne, acne pimples), atopic dermatitis (allergic) dermatitis herpetiformis, eczema, and others. In this article, we will examine a few of them.

Causes of Dermatitis
Irritants that cause dermatitis, may have physical, chemical or biological nature.
There are so-called obligate irritants that cause dermatitis easy for each person. These include friction, pressure, radiation and temperature effects, acid and alkali, some plants (nettle, fraxinella, acrid buttercup, spurge). We all know what burns and frostbite, blisters, every once in my life, "burned" nettle. Manifestations and severity of dermatitis are determined by a simple strength and duration of exposure factor. Simple contact dermatitis symptoms appear immediately or shortly after the first contact with an irritant and lesion area corresponds to the area of ​​contact. Sometimes it is possible chronic dermatitis with prolonged action of the stimulus.
Optional stimuli cause inflammation of the skin only in individuals with hypersensitivity to them. We are talking about diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis and atopic (allergic) dermatitis. Number of elective stimuli (sensitizers) is enormous and growing.
Allergic contact dermatitis, in contrast to the simple, does not develop immediately after exposure to the stimulus, and the first contact. To allergic reaction (sensitization) formed require up to several weeks from the first contact. Then repeated contact dermatitis develops. Inflammatory skin reaction does not correspond to the intensity of the stimulus, which does not cause any changes in people without allergies. The area of ​​skin changes may extend beyond the contact.
Atopic dermatitis - a very complex disease, a chronic inflammatory skin lesions of allergic nature. It may cause a very few, and even many factors - allergens, and thus not only contact but also received by inhalation (pollen, dust) or food (food allergy). It also includes atopic diseases bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and others. Predisposition to atopy is transmitted genetically.
Atopic dermatitis usually develops in early childhood. Often with age manifestation of the disease subside or disappear altogether.

The symptoms of dermatitis
Simple dermatitis occurs acutely or chronically. For acute dermatitis is characterized by bright inflammation, accompanied by itching, burning, pain, and sometimes - blistering and areas of necrosis, leaving scars.
Chronic dermatitis appear stagnant edema, cyanosis, thickening of the skin, lichenification (desquamation), cracked reinforced keratinization, sometimes atrophy of the skin.For acute manifestations of allergic contact dermatitis and atopic dermatitis are also characterized by a bright red skin with marked edema. Further, bubbles may appear and even blisters opened and leaving oozing erosion (Moisture). Decaying leaves inflammation peel and flake.

What you can do
The appearance of dermatitis better to consult a doctor and not to self-medicate. In the treatment of simple contact dermatitis is the main termination of the stimulus. Often patients, understanding the cause of disease, cope with it themselves.However, there are cases (for example, severe chemical and thermal burns, frostbite) when the intervention of a doctor is necessary.

What can a doctor
In the treatment of dermatitis can help you dermatologist and allergist. If necessary, you may be referred to a gastroenterologist and other specialists.
Treatment of allergic contact dermatitis is assigned to a dermatologist and reduced primarily to identify the allergen. You ask in detail about the lifestyle, occupational hazards, cosmetics that you use, and others. With the exclusion of the allergen contact dermatitis symptoms usually disappear.
Much more complicated treatment of atopic dermatitis. This disease should be treated by qualified allergist. Applied antihistamines (such as oral, and ointments), glucocorticoid drugs, allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT).

Preventive measures
Observe safety in the workplace and at home. If you had once been allergic dermatitis and the cause is known, try to avoid contact with the relevant allergen.
The main directions of profilaktikiatopicheskogo dermatitis is adherence to diet.

Hay fever

Hay fever is actually not a fever, and is an allergic reaction, accompanied by bouts of sneezing, runny nose and stuffy nose.
General Information
Its medical name allergic rhinitis, a disease that is triggered by allergens such as dust, pollen and cigarette smoke and is manifested in inflammation of the nasal mucosa.
Allergy to pollen season. Aggravation usually occurs in the summer, especially in hot and windy days when pollen floating in the air. On the other hand, if the allergen is a common dust or animal dander, the disease is less acute, but throughout the year.
Allergic rhinitis often appears with vasomotor rhinitis, when the nose becomes extremely sensitive to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollutants other agents, changes in temperature and humidity, certain foods, medications and emotional stress. Also increase the risk of allergic rhinitis, other allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis.
Hay fever usually develops before the age of 30 years and affects mainly women, but not men.
Causes of rhinitis
The cause of the allergic rhinitis is usually pollen, fungi, hair, animal hair, dust. These substances are harmless to most people, but if inhaled allergies they cause exaggerated immune response. This starts a cascade of biochemical reactions, which results in massive blood outlet of histamine and other chemical compounds that cause inflammation and mucus in the nasal passages and sinuses.

Symptoms of hay fever (allergic rhinitis)
The first symptoms of irritation, itching of the nose, throat, on the palate, inflammation and redness of the eyes.Next, runny nose, sneezing, difficulty breathing, begin to tear his eyes. In some cases, may develop conjunctivitis.

What you can do
Do not open the windows and doors in your home or office. Ventilate the room after the rain, at night and when there is no wind (when the concentration of pollen in the air is reduced). At an open window or door can be hung well moistened gauze sheet or in several layers. The highest concentration of pollen in the air is observed early in the morning and in the dry hot days, so in that period, it is not recommended to go out. After returning from the street should change clothes. Close the windows in the car when traveling.Take a shower at least twice a day. Do not dry after washing things on the street (or on the balcony), because pollen settles on them.
Daily wet cleaning of the apartment, recommended the use of cleaners and humidifiers, use of air conditioning filters at the output.Carefully take medications prescribed by the doctor, and keep a diary of their condition, it will help your doctor to prevent allergy in the future.

What can your doctor
In hay fever pharmacotherapy used 5 main groups of drugs: antihistamines; glucocorticoids; Voltage regulators of mast cell membranes; vasoconstrictor drugs; anticholinergics. When receiving antihistamines significantly reduced in patients allergic rhinitis symptoms such as itching of the nose, sneezing, nasal discharge. Effective these drugs and the concomitant allergic conjunctivitis.
By basic therapies also relates allergen-specific immunotherapy, which can increase the duration of remission (absence of symptoms) to a few years, to reduce the need for medication in a season taking allergen exposure, inhibits transition allergic rhinitis asthma. Conducting this type of therapy is indicated in patients suffering from hay fever with clearly defined allergens.