Sunday, March 8, 2015

Treatment of allergic rhinitis

Rhinitis - an inflammation of the nasal mucosa. If a bacterial infection causes a runny nose thick greenish color. When the virus is the causative agent, nasal discharge light, transparent, abundant. For treatment or antibiotics or antivirals. With hay (from the word "hay") fever used a completely different means, since the treatment of allergic rhinitis requires other medicines. According to the clinical picture of seasonal rhinitis resembles viral, but differs in severity and duration. In addition, its appearance is related to the time of pollination of plants. And treatment of allergic rhinitis requires the exclusion of contact with agents that represent bioorganic substances which in its composition does not pose any danger to people who are not prone to allergic reactions. Hay fever or seasonal rhinitis in 80% of cases is inherited. Type - dominant. If my grandfather suffered from this disease, then grandson will also be subject to seasonal allergies. In this case, not necessarily to develop an allergic reaction in the spring, alien and hazardous substances can cause disease, even in winter. On animal hair, for example. Therefore, the treatment of allergic rhinitis may be conducted at any time of the year.
Upon contact with the allergen in the most vulnerable points develops an inflammatory reaction. Gateway for hay fever are upper respiratory tract. In the nasal mucosa pathological form complexes of antigen-antibody complex. They does not manifest itself until, until a new batch of antigen. When this happens, there is an immediate type reaction. Allergy is a perverted immune response when immune cells destroy the body's own tissues, which are deposited on the surface of pathological complexes. Based on the mechanism of the disease, is the treatment of allergic rhinitis therapy to suppress pathological immune response. At the point of application medicines for the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis divided into the following dosage forms:

  • Local - sprays, nasal drops;
  • General - means for oral, injectable.

Mechanism of action on the individual links of an allergic reaction, the following pharmacological agents:

  •  Vasoconstrictor;
  • Anti-inflammatory;
  •  Antihistamines;
  • Correcting immune response.

Vasoconstrictor drugs help to reduce mucous discharge from the nose, nasal breathing offer, but do not solve the problem of the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, because it does not affect the initial link pathological response. In addition, the vasoconstrictor nose drops should not take more than five days in a row, as vasoconstriction exacerbates the disease. Funds directed against inflammatory changes, contain hormones - glucocorticoids. They act immediately and effectively. Treatment of allergic rhinitis anti-inflammatory drugs of the central action is justified and often irreplaceable. The fact that allergens may "migrate" into the lower respiratory tract, causing asthma. The use of hormonal methods does not render systemic action, then the nasal mucosa glucocorticoids are not absorbed. The most common medications for allergic rhinitis are antihistamines. They also act quickly, destroying histamine - a key mediator of allergic reactions. Modern antihistamine drugs do not cause unwanted side effects: lethargy, drowsiness, distraction. Immunomodulating effect at the cellular level. They inhibit the activity of basophils, which secrete large amounts of histamine. Drugs of this group are used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis only under medical supervision, because the action of immunomodulators is still unclear. In some patients start to improve, while others develop a paradoxical reaction.
Most important in the treatment of allergic rhinitis is to interrupt the contact with the agent. Necessary to identify the allergen to prevent it from use of the sick person. One measure of this is enough to stop all the symptoms without any pharmacological action. Identification of the allergen is carried in a special laboratory. In rare cases, the pathogen can be defined by exclusion, as it is done with food allergies.
There are methods that provide for the introduction of the allergen in small doses, with the aim of "habituation" of the organism to the foreign substance to him. Gradually increasing the dose to the beginning of the season of pollination in the human body creates a limiting concentration of the allergen, and external action has no effect on health. However, such a method of treatment of allergic rhinitis can be used not all patients, because there is the risk of paradoxical reactions.