Friday, July 10, 2015

Allergic conjunctivitis

Any illness creates some inconvenience for people. But of particular discomfort felt when suffering one of the most vulnerable and sensitive organs - eyes. This problem is familiar to so many: conjunctivitis occurs in children and the elderly, men and women. That is, all who have eyes. However, the most susceptible to the disease, those who:

  •     It has a weakened immune system;
  •     wear soft contact lenses;
  •     It takes corticosteroids;
  •     It has chronic nasal lesions, lacrimal;
  •     prone to allergies.

Of all the diseases of the eye it is the most common is conjunctivitis. It is easily treatable, but in the absence of proper attention may become chronic or even damage eyesight (such as nearsightedness).

Features of the disease

The eyeball and the inside of the eyelid covers the transparent, almost invisible film. Its thickness is not greater than one millimeter. This film, which is responsible for dry eye, and there conjunctiva. When it becomes inflamed, it begins conjunctivitis. The reasons for which an illness is pretty much the main ones are:

  •     viruses;
  •     bacteria;
  •     allergens;
  •     other irritants (e.g., evaporation, chemical substances).

And viral and bacterial conjunctivitis is contagious. The only difference is that in the former case, the infection spreads through airborne droplets, and the second - in contact with the affected areas. So first, as a rule, one eye becomes inflamed and then the other. Although under certain conditions the second eye infection can be avoided.

Acute conjunctivitis is developing rapidly and has a bright symptoms and chronic, on the contrary, it proceeds rather slowly and not so clearly evident.

This disease can be in two forms: acute and chronic. The person experiences severe itching, pain, swelling of the eyelids (upper and lower), and sometimes stinging. With the transition of allergic conjunctivitis in the chronic stage are stored only irritation of eyes and itching. The rest flows smoothed, but almost constantly. Disease manifests only on contact with the allergen.

    Drug conjunctivitis develops within 6 hours after taking the medications. During this time, there are growing rapidly swelling, excessive tearing, itching, burning sensation in the eyes and the inability to open it. After prolonged administration of the drug appears follicular form of allergic conjunctivitis. It reminds spring catarrh. In this case, the disease progresses slowly - about 4 months. After the abolition of the drug all the symptoms gradually disappear.
    Atopic conjunctivitis is a seasonal exacerbation. Often accompanied by allergic rhinitis and hay fever seen with. The manifestation of the disease is characterized by burning eyes, itching, severe pain, photophobia, and lacrimation. Also in the course of having swelling, redness and excessive mucus. For this form of allergic conjunctivitis is very dangerous secondary infection. From this age appear defeated, scarring, and hypertrophy of the papillae.
    Spring catarrh common in the southern regions. He mainly affects adolescents, children and men. Has a clear affection for the season: it begins in the spring and the autumn subsides. One of the first manifestations - itching. He gradually intensified, becoming unbearable, especially in the evening. Then, swollen eyelids, conjunctiva reddens. On the conjunctiva appears tuberosity - papillary proliferation of dense individual character. Sometimes the disease becomes severe, affecting the cornea and limb. The disease has a long duration.

Among the consequences of allergic conjunctivitis:

  •     loss of visual acuity;
  •     bronchial asthma;
  •     the accession of secondary infection;
  •     purulent conjunctivitis;
  •     blepharitis (inflammation of the eyelids);
  •     keratitis (inflammation of the cornea);
  •     iridocyclitis (inflammation of the iris eyes);
  •     angioedema;
  •     anaphylactic shock.

Diagnosis of allergic conjunctivitis

Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation. For this study the clinical history and characteristics of symptoms. If you want to perform a differential diagnosis with other types of the disease:

  •     fungal conjunctivitis;
  •     viral conjunctivitis;
  •     bacterial conjunctivitis.

The most informative method is to bacteriological studies and bacterioscopic detachable eye and mucous membrane swabs. It is also practiced by cytological analysis of scrapings. To understand the cause of the allergic reaction is assigned a procedure to establish the cause of allergies. For this purpose, the skin tests and examinations of blood serum for the presence of antibody IgE.


Despite the presence of specific symptoms, in many cases, even the doctor can not determine the cause of the disease, namely, it depends on it, what will be the treatment. Just identify the pathogen can only be in the lab. But often such studies is not necessary, most conjunctivitis tested by themselves.

When bacterial infection effective drops or an antibiotic ointment, but are sometimes used pills and even injections. To clear the secretions from the eyelids, you should use cloth that has been soaked in boiled water. It is important to observe hygiene and produce all manipulations with eyes (to dig, wiping) only with clean hands.