Wednesday, February 3, 2016

Atopic dermatitis in children

Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema or atopic eczema, is a fairly common skin disease. What can I say, if it is found in about 10% of children worldwide. Despite the fact that there is a teenagers and an adult form of the disease, can reasonably be called atopic dermatitis "disease baby-faced." By the way, diathesis - another of its common and the more common name of the people.

The causes of atopic dermatitis

If we talk about the specific causes of atopic dermatitis, they remain to this day in the rank of versions and assumptions. In general, we can speak of a combination of hereditary and a number of other factors of everyday life, which act as the trigger button for atopic dermatitis.

The symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children

Period of occurrence

This kind of eczema is almost always develops within the first 5 years of life, most of all - until the child is 1 year old. Atopic dermatitis is rarely seen immediately after the birth of a baby: more likely its appearance later, after 6 weeks. Other rashes can occur at any time and go for a few days or weeks, but atopic dermatitis is coming for a long time and seriously. Periods of clinical exacerbations may be replaced by "ebb", but this disease has a marked tendency to recur.

Eruptions generated atopic dermatitis, unbearably itchy. The child can not control their unbridled desire to scratch, which ultimately leads to a natural skin damage.
Localization of lesions

In children rash emerges, primarily on the face or inner surface of the elbow and knee bends, i.e. in the places that are easily scratched. In principle, the rash can affect any area of ​​the skin. Sometimes red spots show through only the skin of hands. The rash on the scalp, feet or ears - other key locations for atopic dermatitis. However, one must bear in mind that has similar symptoms and a number of other diseases (e.g., seborrheic dermatitis).

The appearance of the rash
Atopic dermatitis on the inner surface of the knee bends.
This is perhaps the least significant criterion for the identification of atopic dermatitis in children: it is very different, it can be for each individual patient. Overall - it scratches and dry scaly skin. Sometimes the background of aggressive irrepressible scratching the skin infection is entered, and then it is covered by a yellow crust or small pustules. Constant damaging effect on the skin leads to its gradual coarsening.


The presence of family in the incidence of atopic eczema, asthma or hay fever may be more likely to persuade a doctor to the diagnosis of "atopic dermatitis."

What causes atopic dermatitis in children? Trigger factors

First of all, you must understand that atopic dermatitis is not contagious: it is not transmitted from person to person. Atopic skin inflammation is a result of the presence in the skin of the individual large number of so-called inflammatory cells (inflammatory cells) having hyperreactivity towards irritating factors. The task of scientists today is to establish the cause of hyperactivity. Patients with atopic dermatitis, asthma or hay fever are born with an excess of these cells. And if they will be affected by any of the following factors, they will not be able to just "switch off", as do the other cells:

    Dry skin. The main function of this natural protective barrier of our body - protective. We do not pay on skin problems absolutely no attention until she did not force us to do it his dry (read: vulnerability). Individuals with atopic dermatitis are endowed with abnormally dry skin. Other causes of dry skin - too frequent washing and neglect skin moisturizer;
    Irritants. It all chemical substances and natural origin, which can cause irritation and dryness of the skin;
    Stress. With regard to children is, by the way, is also true, as they also sometimes have to experience the frustration, anger or fear. By the way, atopic dermatitis itself - too much stress;
    Sweating. Most of the patients with atopic dermatitis notice that the rash covered when their throws in the heat. It can be physical activity, increased ambient temperature or too warm underwear;
    Infections. Staph infection - a fairly common phenomenon in children. Other infections that can cause atopic dermatitis - herpes and fungal (ringworm or athlete's foot);
    Allergens i.e. all the things that can cause an allergic reaction: pollen, animal dander, dust, food. Obviously, asthma and hay fever allergy-related easier by virtue of speed clinical signs. With slowly developing atopic dermatitis it is more complicated, but in some cases it also develops under the influence of allergens, such as food.

How to treat atopic dermatitis in children

It may seem trite, but the treatment of atopic dermatitis should start with a trip to the doctor. Neither of which Internet diagnosis there can be no question: it like symptoms can occur in a number of serious illnesses and untrue tactics of treatment can be very expensive. If you try to organize all the tools and methods for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in children, can get the following list:

    Local glucocorticoids in the form of creams, ointments, gels, emulsions, etc. (tselestoderm, sinaflana, betasalik). Removing inflammation, effective for acute exacerbations of the disease. The only thing - you can not use more than 7-10 days in a row because of the increased risk of side effects, with which, unfortunately, have these potent means;
    Combination medicaments which include corticosteroids, antibacterial and antifungal agents. Apply in the case of adherence to infection in allergic inflammation;
    Antihistamines (erius, ketotifen, Claritin, Telfast). Optimal use of drugs second and third generation, because they are much less likely to have the sedative effect. On average, a standard course of treatment is about 10 days;
    Derivative pimecrolimus. These modern drugs are used for the relief of acute symptoms. Compared with glucocorticoids have a greater safety (for example, at least to the manufacturer);
    Sorbents (Polyphepanum, activated charcoal). Used as part of combination therapy to detoxification;
    Antiseptics (fukartsin, "Zelenka");
    Soft sedatives (Persia, glycine, plant-based preparations of valerian, peony).

These drugs are used primarily during exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. When the disease is receding, the treatment significantly modified: emphasis on vitamin and cosmetic correction and concomitant diseases.