Wednesday, July 8, 2015

Autoimmune thyroiditis

Autoimmune thyroiditis is a chronic disease of the thyroid gland. It manifested in the form of inflammatory autoimmune nature. Due to the destruction of follicular cells and follicular thyroid varying severity. Also called Hashimoto's thyroiditis (Hashimoto).

The disease has several derived forms:

  •     postpartum;
  •     atrophic;
  •     hypertrophic.

How does autoimmune thyroiditis

The vast majority of symptoms of the disease due to a lack of secretion of thyroid hormones. However, in euthyroid and subclinical hypothyroidism symptoms phases not being felt. And only with time appear:

  •     obesity (a significant increase in weight);
  •     violation of thermoregulation of the body;
  •     constipation;
  •     muscle aches;
  •     puffiness of face and swelling of the neck;
  •     slow heart rate;
  •     depression;
  •     menstrual irregularities (usually - irregular);
  •     fragility and loss of hair;
  •     Problems with the mucous membranes;
  •     the impossibility of conception.

Then the state changes and possible manifestation of hyperthyroidism. Excessive release of thyroid hormones in the blood triggers:

  •     an increase in blood pressure;
  •     increased sweating;
  •     increased heart rate (tachycardia);
  •     shaking hands (tremor).

What causes autoimmune thyroiditis

The causes of the disease can be a variety of factors.

    Genetic background. Autoimmune thyroiditis - a hereditary disease. But while the experts have not made a final conclusion whether it is leading. It is believed that the gene factor - it's one of the few prerequisites. Therefore, the presence of these patients in the home increases the risk of thyroid at times.
    Radiation exposure. It is ranked not only increased radiation background of the environment, and other factors. For example, irradiation with radiation during radiotherapy disposal of oncology.
    Excess iodine. An excessively high content of iodine in the body can become an agent provocateur of autoimmune thyroiditis. In conjunction with other factors, he also triggers the disease.
    Hormonal factors. Sex hormones play a major role in the emergence of the disease. The proof is the fact that women get 5-7 times more often than men. It is also important that women have thyroid problems related to pregnancy and childbirth. In 20 percent of cases they then develop into AIT.

It is developing the disease without obvious symptoms. Or may be minor violations of the thyroid gland. Sometimes it takes years before there are serious dysfunction. Quite often signal the onset of the disease is an increase in the crop. This provokes not only uncomfortable, but also problems in swallowing food.

So, observed:

  •     feeling of tightness in the throat;
  •     feeling of a lump when swallowing;
  •     slight pain in the thyroid;
  •     pain on palpation of the prostate;
  •     joint pain;
  •     slight malaise and fatigue.

After 5-15 years from the date of occurrence of the disease, hypothyroidism gradually increases. And then - only in the presence of adverse factors. These include:

  •     exacerbation of various chronic illnesses;
  •     physical stress;
  •     mental overload;
  •     viral diseases;
  •     acute respiratory infections.

Diagnosis of autoimmune thyroiditis

In euthyroid stage to determine the exact diagnosis is extremely problematic. The criteria allowing it to establish reliable disease include a combination of the following features:

  •     the presence of primary hypothyroidism (overt or subclinical);
  •     hypoechogenicity thyroid (the typical signs on examination ultrasound);
  •     increase in the level of antibodies circulating in the thyroid gland.

The absence of even one of them calls into question the diagnosis of why he is probabilistic in nature.


Finally get rid of this disease is impossible. Modern drugs can only maintain an optimal level of concentration of hormones, the normal metabolic processes and a stable cardiac function.

Treatment is carried out by several methods:

  •     medication;
  •     surgically.
Medicament approach is based on the use of:
  •     thyroid medications (replacement therapy with L-thyroxine, thyroidin, triiodothyronine, thyroxine);
  •     glucocorticoid agents (usually in conjunction autoimmune thyroiditis, and subacute);
  •     preparations based on white cinquefoil - zobofita, Endocrinol, endonorma, album);
  •     immunomodulators (T-activin, they can go on their own or in combination with thyroid drugs).

Surgery is rarely practiced in exceptional cases. It is prescribed only when the crop and sharply increasing threat to neighboring tissues. For example, while squeezing the esophagus, trachea and blood vessels.

Prevention of autoimmune thyroiditis

It consists in:

  •     timely treatment for medical assistance if discomfort in the area of ​​the thyroid gland;
  •     under constant medical supervision of genetic predisposition, aggravated goiter;
  •     rational use of iodine and products in which it is contained.