Friday, October 9, 2015

Nasal allergy

Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory reaction of the nasal mucosa allergy. He also is known as hay fever. It is characterized by episodic or chronic disturbances of nasal breathing. Can be of two types:
1. persistent (year-round);
2. intermittent (seasonal).

What are the symptoms of allergic rhinitis
After contact with the allergen reaction occurs almost immediately or can be delayed for a few hours - from 4 to 8 disappears after 7-10 days. Among the symptoms that manifest themselves in a few minutes, are: intense sneezing (in chronic allergies is usually observed in the morning, after waking up); rhinorrhea (runny nose are generally transparent and has a liquid consistency, but may be a yellowish viscous and the presence of nasal or sinus infection); tickling in the throat (as a result of a drip infusion, often accompanied by a cough); itchy eyes and watery eyes (a sign combining with allergic conjunctivitis); itching and tickling in the nose and ear.
By delayed symptoms occurring after a certain period after exposure to the allergen, include: nasal sinuses, and wheezing; allergic crease in the area of ​​the nose (from the constant rubbing and sniff provoked rhinitis); Allergic black eyes (dark circles); pain and discomfort in the face; hearing problems or the pressure in the ears; congestion of the Eustachian tubes (coming from the ears to the throat); sinus problems (dryness and discomfort); persistent coughing; disorder of sense of smell; mouth breathing (due to the constant nasal congestion); unsatisfying sleep; prostration; bad mood and irritability; eye sensitivity to light.

The causes of allergic rhinitis
The cause of allergic rhinitis is direct contact with allergens. Thus during breathing they fall on the mucosa of the nasopharynx and irritate it, causing a variety of disease manifestations. Among the most active allergens include: pollen; animal dander and pets; Bird feathers and down; dust mites and their waste products; mold and fungi of all kinds; cockroaches, as well as traces of their presence; household dust; cereals; sawdust; chemicals.
Allergic rhinitis - is a sharp immune system's response to inhaled irritant potential. She actually comes into confrontation with allergic particles, causing the above symptoms. Most often they appear in individuals in a state of atopy.
As a rule, these people have more than one kind of allergic symptoms, but several. A similar tendency is observed in patients, relatives who were also exposed to similar kinds of allergies. It is usually from: nasal; eyes; ears; pharynx.
When the immune system first encounters allergens, it takes them as alien hazardous substances. Therefore, the body reacts to them rapidly, producing antibodies.
In the subsequent penetration of the antibodies affect allergens, accompanying this release of histamine and other chemicals. Thus there are sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, itching. This process is called sensitization.
This allergic rhinitis is fraught with negative consequences such as: sinusitis; bronchial asthma; plug in the ear; inflammation of the ear; sleeplessness; irritability; migraine; fatigue.

Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis
The diagnosis is established on the testimony of history and on the basis of the identified symptoms. In the acute form of manifestation appointed special allergy tests. They may be in the form of skin test (the upper layer of the skin a small amount of liquid is applied to the allergen, and then an injection is performed); Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay mark (to determine blood levels of the antibody immunoglobulin E); nasal swab (his fence allows determine the level of eosinophils - white blood cells entering the nasal discharge).

For the treatment of this disease are used: antihistamines that do not cause drowsiness (they are well eliminate the sneezing, itching, runny nose); decongestants (to help get rid of the nasal sinuses); corticosteroid nasal spray (characterized by fast action and helps to avoid the appearance of characteristic symptoms); ipratropium bromide (stop runny nose); cromolyn sodium (opposed not only nasal congestion, runny nose and sneezing, and irritation of the eyes); leukotriene modifier (effective for rhinitis, itching, nasal sinuses, sneezing).

Prevention of allergic rhinitis
To do this, follow a few requirements: avoid contact with the allergen; More frequent wet cleaning and monitor accumulation of mold, hair, dust; Only wash bedding in hot water; coming from the street to wash the nose and eyes; close the windows in the hours of greatest concentration of pollen.