Spastic reduction of pharyngeal muscles known popularly as spasms in the throat, which are likely not to vascular disease, and to a violation of the innervation of the pharynx. Pharyngeal ring form two branches of the autonomic nervous system: sympathetic - the nerve processes of the cervical ganglia of the trunk of the spinal cord; Parasympathetic - the second pair of the trigeminal nerve (maxillary), glossopharyngeal nerve and the upper branch of the vagus nerve. Parasympathetic nerves are involved in ensuring sensitivity and locomotor activity, whereas the trunk of the sympathetic nervous branches of the "responsible" for the general reactions. Nervous innervation provides vascular tone, which affects cell nutrition pharyngeal ring - is, in essence, is the main function of the nervous system. Parasympathetic branch aims to provide nutrients, and the sympathetic nervous system causes the mobilization of energy reserves for emergency action. This kind of power from the two policies: positive and negative. At the "short-circuit" appear spasms in the throat, for which adequate food and adequate breathing becomes impossible. Spasms in the throat, causes most dangerous condition occurs when in contact with cold (below 20 ° C) water, this so-called "dry drowning". Upper respiratory tract, in contact with liquid in them, accompanied by strong transcendent irritation trunk of the sympathetic system. As a result, lightning reaction verhnegortannogo nerve that leads to spasm of the vocal cords. It is a defensive reaction aimed at preventing the ingress of water into the airways. When the vocal cords are tightly closed, practically "tightly", there is a reflex cardiac arrest. Such a state will lead to death. A person dies without having to "drown". In general, there is less dangerous spasms in the throat, which can be a cause various diseases and pathological conditions with organic nature: Abscess of the tonsils pharyngeal ring Pirogov-Valdeera as acute purulent inflammation is accompanied by violent impulses nerve pathways, thus creating discomfort in the throat, accompanied by acute pain; Lockjaw masticatory muscles. Their innervation is also provided by the trigeminal nerve, so when inflammation (neuritis) occurs not only twitching pharyngeal ring, but the jaws. Spasm in the throat accompanied by a strong reduction in the oral cavity; The defeat of the glossopharyngeal nerve leads to choke saliva not only, but also by air due to irritation of the epiglottis. Such conditions when developing spasms in the throat, accompanied by a cough and noted in lesions of the central nervous system: dimelieniziruyuschie disease, residual symptoms after stroke; Diseases of the endocrine system. Mechanical cause spasm in the throat when swallowing is the pressure on the larynx enlarged thyroid gland. And with adrenal tumors (pheochromocytoma) comes increased production of adrenaline, which prevents the formation of saliva. In such cases, the spasms in the throat when swallowing due to "dry throat," that is, an active stimulation of the nerve endings of food, liquid; Gastrointestinal disease accompanied reflux esophagitis (reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus). Esophageal mucosa unadapted to the action of hydrochloric acid, so if there is a spasm of irritation in the throat, which is a protective reaction. In addition to the reasons caused by the defeat of muscle, nerve, vascular cells, there are functional factors that may cause spasms in the throat, which are impermanent nature, but not always, they can go without the active medical intervention. The simplest example of functional pathology is getting a foreign body in the throat. Fish bone irritates undamaged nerve fibers, causing a reduction in the pharyngeal muscles, which increases with swallowing. Or, conversely, after swallowing a solid lump of food or pills a person has a sense of long-term spasm in the throat, as if swallowed by the subject for a long time "does not sink and is in the throat." Water consumption is not always helps to relieve the feeling of a lump in the throat. Such a condition is associated with a small amount of saliva in swallowing, thus, there is stimulation of receptors pharyngeal ring. In some cases, the "lump falls" only a few hours later.
Nervous spasms in the throat
Of course, every twitching pharynx accompanied by irritation of the peripheral nervous system, but such a definition as a nervous spasm in the throat, characterizes only the stress response. The parasympathetic nervous system is under stress is suppressed, so the saliva is released little throat "dry." The most striking manifestation of this spasm in the throat is a "hysterical lump." In persons who are prone to hysterical reactions, during an attack from somewhere inside the body to her throat as if rolls spherical valve, stopping not only the esophagus, but the respiratory tract. Diagnosis hysterical fit is not difficult: it always occurs in the presence of people and triggered traumatic situation. When there are spasms in the throat, treatment is carried out by specialists, depending on the causes of this condition. Violation of innervation in the competence of a neurologist. When hormonal pathology need help endocrinologist. Diseases of the digestive system treats a gastroenterologist. Hysterical manifestations run by a psychiatrist.